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AP Music Theory
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AP Music Theory

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  1. AP Music Theory Elements of Music: Pitch

  2. IB and AP • This class will get you through the material you will need to accurately analyze a piece of music in the IB Curriculum especially in Form and Harmony • Please take a moment to read the Syllabus and the Course Planner on Moodle • Please find the Sight Singing Exercises on Moodle as well • Please pay your class fee of $45.00 by Friday ONLINE • If you have questions about anything email me at jsaenz@somersetacademy.com

  3. Keyboard and Octave Registers • Pitch refers to highness or lowness of a sound • Names for the first 7 letters of the alphabet (ABCDEFG) • C- is the note that we will relate to the keyboard • 7 ¼ octaves on a standard keyboard from A-0 to C-8 • From any C up to the next C is called an octave • All the notes from one C to another are part of the same octave register

  4. Keyboard

  5. Notation on a Staff • A staff is used to indicate the precise pitch desired • Contains 5 lines and 4 spaces • Can be indefinitely extended with ledger lines • A clef associates certain pitches with the lines and spaces: • G-Clef – Treble • F Clef – Bass Clef • C-Clef – Alto or Tenor clef (it is movable) • A Grand staff is a combination of the Treble and bass clef

  6. Clef Signs

  7. The Major Scale • Scales form the basis of tonal music • The major scale is a pattern of half and whole steps encompassing an octave • Half step is the distance from one key to the next key either black or white • Natural half step is between B and C and E and F • Whole steps skip the next key to the next key white or black

  8. Tetrachords and Accidentals • Tetrachords – four note patern of 1 - 1- ½ • A Major scale is made up of two tetrachords with a whole step in the middle • Accidentals – symbols that raises or lowers a note • Accidentals are written to the left of the note and are vocalized after the note

  9. Accidentals

  10. Major Key Signatures • Key – the term that is used to identify the first degree of a scale • Key Signature – is a pattern of sharps or flats that appear at the beginning of a staff and indicates that certain notes are to be raised or lowered consistently • Sharps – G, D, A, E B F# C# • Flats – F Bb EbAbDb Gb Cb

  11. Key Signatures

  12. Other Key Signature Info • Order of sharps – FCGDAEB • Order of Flats – BEADGCF • Enharmonic – Notes that are spelled differently but sound the same • Transposition – to write or play music in some key other than the original • Circle of Fifths – follows the order of sharps in a clockwise motion around a circle

  13. Circle of Fifths

  14. Minor Scales • Natural minor scales – like a major scale with a lowered, 3rd, 6th, and 7th degree • Harmonic Minor scale – thought of as a major scale with a lowered 3rd and 6th degree • Melodic minor scale – ascending form is like a major scale with a lowered 3rd degree, the descending form is the same as the natural minor scale

  15. Natural Minor Scales

  16. Minor Key Signatures • Relative – share the same key signature • Parallel – share the same letter name only • We base the minor key signature on the major key signature but take the name of the 6th scale degree • Relatively speaking – C major and A minor share the same key signature • To create harmonic or melodic you must use accidentals

  17. Scale Degree Names • All scales have scale degree names • 1st – Tonic • 2nd – Supertonic • 3rd – Mediant • 4th – Subdominant • 5th – Dominant • 6th – Submediant • 7th – Subtonic or leading tone – depends on whether it is raised

  18. Intervals • Interval – a measurement of the distance in pitch between two notes • Harmonic Interval – performing the two notes at the same time • Melodic Interval – performing the two notes successively

  19. Intervals 2 • Two parts of an interval name • Numerical name – how far apart they are • Unison instead of 1 • Octave instead of 8 • 2nd instead of two • 3rd instead of three • Interval smaller than an octave are called simple intervals • Intervals larger than an octave are called compound intervals • Modifier – Perfect, Major, Minor, augmented and mininished

  20. Intervals Modifiers • Perfect refers only to the Unison (P1), Octave (P8), the 4th (P4), and the 5th (P5) • Major or Minor refers to the 2nd (M2,m2), 3rd (M3, m3), 6th (M6,m6), and 7th (M7, m7) • Augmented – a major or perfect interval that is expanded by ½ step • Diminished – a minor or perfect interval that is contracted by ½ step

  21. Natural Interval Chart

  22. Inversions of Intervals • Inversion – putting the top note below the lower note of an interval • 2nd becomes a 7th and the reverse • 3rd becomes a 6th and the reverse • 4th becomes a 5th and the reverse • The Modifier changes as well when inverted • Minor becomes Major and vise-versa • Augmented becomes diminished and vice-versa • Perfect is always perfect

  23. Consonant and Dissonant • Consonant – pleasing to the ear – 3rd, 6th, perfect 5th and octave • Dissonant – not pleasing to the ear

  24. Ear Training/ Sight Singing • Go to: • www.musictheory.net • Begin practicing on Note Identification in all clefs • Key signature Identification Major and Minor • Interval Identification in all keys with modifiers • Practice Sight Singing Exercise 1 on Moodle

  25. Daily Homework • Sing & Play on a keyboard anything discussed or worked on in class. • Practice sightsinging from the AP Music Theory and Choir Resources webpages on the Somerset Academy website under my name. • Always work in your workbook AHEAD of the lessons the class is on so that you have questions when we go over it.