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AP Music Theory. Elements of Music: Pitch. IB and AP. This class will get you through the material you will need to accurately analyze a piece of music in the IB Curriculum especially in Form and Harmony Please take a moment to read the Syllabus and the Course Planner on Moodle

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ap music theory

AP Music Theory

Elements of Music: Pitch

ib and ap
IB and AP
  • This class will get you through the material you will need to accurately analyze a piece of music in the IB Curriculum especially in Form and Harmony
  • Please take a moment to read the Syllabus and the Course Planner on Moodle
  • Please find the Sight Singing Exercises on Moodle as well
  • Please pay your class fee of $45.00 by Friday ONLINE
  • If you have questions about anything email me at jsaenz@somersetacademy.com
keyboard and octave registers
Keyboard and Octave Registers
  • Pitch refers to highness or lowness of a sound
  • Names for the first 7 letters of the alphabet (ABCDEFG)
  • C- is the note that we will relate to the keyboard
  • 7 ¼ octaves on a standard keyboard from A-0 to C-8
  • From any C up to the next C is called an octave
  • All the notes from one C to another are part of the same octave register
notation on a staff
Notation on a Staff
  • A staff is used to indicate the precise pitch desired
  • Contains 5 lines and 4 spaces
  • Can be indefinitely extended with ledger lines
  • A clef associates certain pitches with the lines and spaces:
    • G-Clef – Treble
    • F Clef – Bass Clef
    • C-Clef – Alto or Tenor clef (it is movable)
    • A Grand staff is a combination of the Treble and bass clef
the major scale
The Major Scale
  • Scales form the basis of tonal music
  • The major scale is a pattern of half and whole steps encompassing an octave
  • Half step is the distance from one key to the next key either black or white
  • Natural half step is between B and C and E and F
  • Whole steps skip the next key to the next key white or black
tetrachords and accidentals
Tetrachords and Accidentals
  • Tetrachords – four note patern of 1 - 1- ½
  • A Major scale is made up of two tetrachords with a whole step in the middle
  • Accidentals – symbols that raises or lowers a note
  • Accidentals are written to the left of the note and are vocalized after the note
major key signatures
Major Key Signatures
  • Key – the term that is used to identify the first degree of a scale
  • Key Signature – is a pattern of sharps or flats that appear at the beginning of a staff and indicates that certain notes are to be raised or lowered consistently
    • Sharps – G, D, A, E B F# C#
    • Flats – F Bb EbAbDb Gb Cb
other key signature info
Other Key Signature Info
  • Order of sharps – FCGDAEB
  • Order of Flats – BEADGCF
  • Enharmonic – Notes that are spelled differently but sound the same
  • Transposition – to write or play music in some key other than the original
  • Circle of Fifths – follows the order of sharps in a clockwise motion around a circle
minor scales
Minor Scales
  • Natural minor scales – like a major scale with a lowered, 3rd, 6th, and 7th degree
  • Harmonic Minor scale – thought of as a major scale with a lowered 3rd and 6th degree
  • Melodic minor scale – ascending form is like a major scale with a lowered 3rd degree, the descending form is the same as the natural minor scale
minor key signatures
Minor Key Signatures
  • Relative – share the same key signature
  • Parallel – share the same letter name only
  • We base the minor key signature on the major key signature but take the name of the 6th scale degree
  • Relatively speaking – C major and A minor share the same key signature
  • To create harmonic or melodic you must use accidentals
scale degree names
Scale Degree Names
  • All scales have scale degree names
  • 1st – Tonic
  • 2nd – Supertonic
  • 3rd – Mediant
  • 4th – Subdominant
  • 5th – Dominant
  • 6th – Submediant
  • 7th – Subtonic or leading tone – depends on whether it is raised
  • Interval – a measurement of the distance in pitch between two notes
  • Harmonic Interval – performing the two notes at the same time
  • Melodic Interval – performing the two notes successively
intervals 2
Intervals 2
  • Two parts of an interval name
    • Numerical name – how far apart they are
      • Unison instead of 1
      • Octave instead of 8
      • 2nd instead of two
      • 3rd instead of three
      • Interval smaller than an octave are called simple intervals
      • Intervals larger than an octave are called compound intervals
    • Modifier – Perfect, Major, Minor, augmented and mininished
intervals modifiers
Intervals Modifiers
  • Perfect refers only to the Unison (P1), Octave (P8), the 4th (P4), and the 5th (P5)
  • Major or Minor refers to the 2nd (M2,m2), 3rd (M3, m3), 6th (M6,m6), and 7th (M7, m7)
  • Augmented – a major or perfect interval that is expanded by ½ step
  • Diminished – a minor or perfect interval that is contracted by ½ step
inversions of intervals
Inversions of Intervals
  • Inversion – putting the top note below the lower note of an interval
  • 2nd becomes a 7th and the reverse
  • 3rd becomes a 6th and the reverse
  • 4th becomes a 5th and the reverse
  • The Modifier changes as well when inverted
    • Minor becomes Major and vise-versa
    • Augmented becomes diminished and vice-versa
    • Perfect is always perfect
consonant and dissonant
Consonant and Dissonant
  • Consonant – pleasing to the ear – 3rd, 6th, perfect 5th and octave
  • Dissonant – not pleasing to the ear
ear training sight singing
Ear Training/ Sight Singing
  • Go to:
    • www.musictheory.net
  • Begin practicing on Note Identification in all clefs
  • Key signature Identification Major and Minor
  • Interval Identification in all keys with modifiers
  • Practice Sight Singing Exercise 1 on Moodle
daily homework
Daily Homework
  • Sing & Play on a keyboard anything discussed or worked on in class.
  • Practice sightsinging from the AP Music Theory and Choir Resources webpages on the Somerset Academy website under my name.
  • Always work in your workbook AHEAD of the lessons the class is on so that you have questions when we go over it.