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  1. Journal • What gets on your nerves? (10 sentences)

  2. The Nervous SystemCh. 6

  3. The Nervous System • Central nervous system • Made up of brain and spinal cord • Peripheral Nervous system • Branching parts from the spinal cord to all other parts of the body • Nerves get smaller the further away from the spinal cord you are

  4. Neurons • Long, thin cells of the nerve tissue • Messages travel along “neuron highway” • “All or none” principle • A neuron “fires” at full strength or not at all

  5. Parts of the Neuron Dendrite: protrude from cell body, receive messages (impulses) from other neurons and send them to other parts of the body Axon: carries messages (impulses) toward axon terminals Axon terminals: release neurotransmitters to excite dendrites of next neuron Myelin sheath: fatty substance that protects and insulates the axon, speeds up impulses -lack of myelin sheath leads to erratic, uncoordinated movements (multiple sclerosis)

  6. Types of Neurons • Afferent • “Sensory neurons” • Relay messages from sense organs to brain • Efferent • “Motor neurons” • Messages from brain to muscles • Interneurons • Process signals to other neurons

  7. Firing Across the Synapse • Synapse: gap between nerve cells • Chemicals known as neurotransmitters are released from one dendrite and excite the receptors of the next neuron • Release (or non-release) of different neurotransmitters leads to different emotions • Happiness/learning (dopamine), inhibit pain (endorphin), depression (seratonin)

  8. Voluntary vs. Involuntary Activity • Somatic Nervous System • Controls VOLUNTARY activities • Lifting your arms/legs • Autonomic Nervous System • Controls INVOLUNTARY activities • Breathing, heartbeat, digestion • Sympathetic nervous system • Prepares body for emergencies • Increases oxygen supply, speeds heart rate • Parasympathetic nervous system • Tries to conserve energy, recovery • Reduces heart rate, bring body to “resting” state

  9. Outside Activity • Set yourself up as the nervous system • You must pass the signal (ball) from the brain, down the spinal cord and back to the brain • You must describe the parts of the nervous system as the message is being passed to and from the muscles • What was the final action? • What happens if there is a break in the nervous system?

  10. Journal • Are you ever in your “right mind?” • If you do not know what this means, answering the following question: • Should sports that are known for concussions and head injuries be televised? What are the implications of (boxing, American football, hockey, UFC, football/soccer)? • 10 sentences for either one

  11. The Brain (pt. 1) Parts & Functions 6.2 (p. 160-165)

  12. The Brain

  13. Hindbrain • Responsible for basic processes • Located at rear base of skull • Parts of the hindbrain: • Cerebellum • Controls posture, balance, VOLUNTARY movement • Medulla • Controls breathing, heart rate, reflexes • • Pons • Connects brain and spinal cord; chemicals for sleep

  14. The Hindbrain

  15. The Midbrain • Located just above the pons (hindbrain) • Arouses brain • Integrates sensory info • Reticular activating system (RAS) • Part of sleep/wake cycle • Alerts brain to incoming signals

  16. The Midbrain

  17. The forebrain • Responsible for higher thinking processes • Parts of the forebrain • Cerebral cortex (outer layer of forebrain) • Learn and store complex info; conscious thinking • Cerebrum (inner layer of forebrain): emotions • Limbic system: • Hypothalamus: controls hunger, thirst, sexual behavior, temperature • Thalamus: receives sensory info (except smell), send to cortex • Amygdala: controls rage and fear • Hippocampus: forms memories

  18. The Forebrain

  19. Lobes of the Brain

  20. The lobes

  21. Cortexes • Somatosensory cortex • Located at back of frontal lobe • RECEIVES info from touch sensors • Number of touch sensors in a body part determines amount of brain tissue associated • Ex: hands have more brain area than bicep • Motor cortex • SENDS info to control body movement • More sophisticated the movement, more brain area

  22. Left vs. Right Hemispheres • Cerebrum comprised of 2 sides (hemispheres) • Each hemisphere controls opposite half of body • Left hemisphere controls right side of body, vice versa • Connected by corpus callosum (lots of fibers) • Carries messages between both hemispheres • **Left/Right test:

  23. Brain Hemispheres

  24. Split-brain Functioning • Separate the corpus callosum • Hemispheres can no longer “talk” to each other • Done to prevent severity and frequency of seizure patients • Research shows each hemisphere is specialized • Patients retain their intelligence, emotions, and personality

  25. Journal • How would your behavior be different if you were to have serious head trauma? (10 sent) • Things to consider as you write: • How did your brain get hurt? • What parts of the brain were affected? • Can you recover?

  26. The brain (pt. 2) 6.2 (p. 165-168) Problems and solutions to brain damage

  27. How to study the brain • Electroencephalograph (EEG) • Use electrodes to study electrical activity in the brain (looks at neurons firing) • • Stimulate brain • Use electric shock to affect different parts of the brain (can reduce pain, control behavior) • Lobotomy/lesions • Remove or destroy certain parts of the brain • Formerly done to prisoners, behavior issues • Real life accidents • Look at what parts of the brain were affected and see how person’s behavior changed after accident •

  28. Medical Devices • CT (computerized axial tomography) Scan: • Looks at how density of the brain to determine injuries or deterioration • PET (positron emission tomography) Scan: • Uses injected solution to see how much of the solution the brain absorbs • Shows activity of different areas of the brain • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) • Looks at brain activity AND structure • Good for identifying tumors

  29. Quiz/Test Hints • Be able to explain where each part (lobes, 3 main parts, hemispheres) • What does each part do? • Besides the neuron, what are other parts of the nervous system? • What are their functions? • What are ways to DETECT abnormalities in the brain? • What are ways to STUDY the brain?