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  1. Journal • KWL Chart • What do you know about beef? Write a paragraph • What would you like to know about beef? Write another paragraph.

  2. Chapter 19 Meat, Poultry, Fish, and Shellfish

  3. State Standards

  4. Section 19-2 Meat Selection and Storage

  5. Types of Meat • Beef: meat from cattle more than 1 year old • Cuts have bright red flesh • Fat is firm with a white, creamy white, or yellowish color • Veal: meat from very young claves • Light pink color with very little fat • Lamb: Meat from young sheep • Cuts are a bright pink-red color • white, brittle fat • Pork: meat from hogs • Meat is greyish-pink • White, soft fat

  6. Cuts of Meat • Wholesale cuts: also called primal cuts, these cuts are large cuts for marketing • Retail cuts: smaller cuts you can find in the supermarket • Price label on the meat identifies the cut • Type of meat listed 1st, wholesale cut 2nd, retail cut 3rd • Example: Beef Chuck Steak

  7. Wholesale Cuts

  8. Bone Shape • Bone shapes in the wholesale cuts are distinctive • These shapes are nearly identical in beef, pork, lamb, and veal • Knowing the shape can help you determine if the meat is tender

  9. Which Cuts are Lean? • Beef Roasts and Steaks: round, loin, sirloin, and chuck arm • Pork Roasts and Chops: tenderloin, center loin, ham • Veal Cuts: all except ground veal • Lamb Roasts and Chops: leg, loin, and foreshank • Appearance is the best indicator of leaness • Inspect the package carefully • Fat should be trimmed to ¼ inch

  10. Ground Meat • Ground beef is made from meat trimmings • Cannot have more than 30% fat by weight • Also find packages of ground lamb, pork, veal, turkey, chicken

  11. Organ Meats • Liver: highly nutritious and tender • Lamb and Veal kidneys: tender with mild flavor • Beef and Pork Kidneys: strong flavor, less tender • Chitterlings: usually intestines of pigs, but may come from calves • Other organ meats: brains, heart, tongue, tripe (stomach linning of cattle), sweetbreads (thymus gland)

  12. Inspection and Grading • Meat must be inspected by the USDA • Wholesale cuts are stamped • Grading is voluntary • Grading is based on standards that include amount of marbling, age of the animal, and texture and appearance • Prime: highest and most expensive • Choice: most common grade sold in supermarkets • Select: least expensive and sometimes sold as store brand • Pork is not graded

  13. Processed Meats • About 35% meat produced in the US is processed • Meats are processed to impart distinctive flavors • Typical processed meats: ham, bacon, sausage, and cold cuts • Curing: placing the meat in a mixture of salt, sugar, sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, ascorbic acid, and water • Smoking: liquid smoke for flavoring

  14. Using Processed Meats • Ham • Meat from the thigh of a hog that has been cured and either smoked or canned • Sometimes hams are cooked, but sometimes they are not • Sausage • Made from ground meat • Some must be cooked before eating, but others are ready to eat • Cold Cuts • Processed meats that are sliced and packaged

  15. Storing Meat • Requires cold storage • Ground meat and variety meats- use within 1-2 days • Other meats: use within 3-5 days • Freeze meat for longer storage

  16. Journal Wrap Up • Go back to your journal, now write what you know about beef

  17. Section 19-3 Poultry Selection and Storage

  18. Assignment • Reteaching 19-2

  19. Types of Poultry • Chicken: light and dark meat • The bird’s age determines the tenderness of its meat and the cooking method to use • Broiler-fryer Chicken: the most tender and most common ; cook using almost any method • Roaster Chicken: raised to be roasted whole; slightly larger and older and yield more meat • Stewing Chicken: older, mature birds; older so they must be cooked in moist heat • Rock Cornish Game Hens: young, small chickens of a special breed; Less meat in relation to other chickens; 1 hen=1 serving; broil or roast • Capons: desexed roosters under 10 months old; best roasted

  20. Types, Continued • Turkey: larger than chickens and have stronger flavor • Beltsville or Fryer-Roaster Turkeys- smallest, average 5-9 pounds • Hen Turkeys- female, weigh 8-16 pounds • Tom Turkeys- male, can weigh up to 24 pounds • Ducks and Geese: all dark meat, relatively high in fat • Ground Poultry- read the label carefully “ground turkey breast” or “ground chicken” means both flesh and skin used • Use ground turkey or chicken in place of ground beef; add a little more seasonings and water to the meat • Giblets: edible poultry organs; include liver, gizzard, and heart • Processed Poultry: frankfurters and sausages

  21. Inspection and Grading • Inspected by the USDA • Grading is voluntary • Grading and inspection marks are found on the label or tag attached to the bird • Grade A most commonly found in supermarkets • Indicates it is practically free of defects, has a good shape and appearance, and is meaty

  22. Buying and Storing Poultry • Look for plump, meaty birds • Skin should be smooth and soft, color can vary from creamy white to yellow • Avoid poultry with tiny feathers or bruised or torn skin • Use poultry within 1-2 days • Freeze for longer storage

  23. Assignment • Reteaching 19-3

  24. Section 19-4 Fish and Shellfish Selection and Storage

  25. Journal • Have you ever eaten fish you caught yourself? • What are 3 advantages to eating fish you caught? • What are 3 disadvantages to eating fish you caught?

  26. Fish and Shellfish • Fish- most fish have bony skeleton and backbone • Shellfish- no fins or bones but have a shell • Freshwater and saltwater varieties • Some types of fish and shellfish are raised on fish farms

  27. Fish Cuts Drawn: whole fish with scales, gills, and internal organs removed Dressed: drawn fish with head, tail, and fins removed Fillets: sides of fish cut lengthwise away from bones and backbone. Usually boneless Steaks: cross sections cut from large, dressed fish. May contain bones from ribs and backbone

  28. Types of Fish and Shellfish • Shellfish: almost all come oceans and seas, but a few come from freshwater • Crustaceans: shellfish that have long bodies with jointed limbs, covered with a shell. Examples: • Crabs- oval shell, 4 pairs of walking legs, and 2 claws; different varieties are available; sold live, cooked, or frozen • Crayfish- freshwater ; sold live, whole, or cooked • Lobsters- long, jointed body with 4 pairs walking legs and 2 large claws; fresh lobster sold live • Shrimp- vary in size and color, buy raw shrimp or cooked shrimp with or without the shell

  29. Types, continued • Mollusks- shellfish with soft bodies that are covered with at least 1 shell • Clams- 2 shells hinged at the back; sold live or shucked • Mussels- thin, oblong shell; flesh is creamy tan and not as tender as that of oysters or clams; sold live in the shell • Oysters- rough, hard grey shell; sold live or shucked • Scallops- grow in beautiful fan-shaped shells; only the muscle that hinges the two shells is sold • Squid- AKA calamari; sold fresh

  30. Processed Fish • Dried • Smoked • Cured • Canned fish and shellfish- read to eat or use • Look for fish packed in water instead of oil • Frozen, breaded fish

  31. Inspection and Grading • FDA- food and drug administration • Modern food safety system for fish known as hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP- HAS-sip) • All seafood processors, repackers, and warehouses must use the system • Voluntary grading by the FDA and the National Marine Fisheries Service of the US Department of Commerce

  32. Buying Fish and Shellfish • Fishy odor- be suspicious! • Buy from a reliable source • Pay attention to the display- layers should not be piled on top of ice • Do not buy ready to eat fish piled next to fresh fish • Use appearance, aroma, and touch to judge quality • Fresh fish should have shiny skin and glistening color • Whole fish should have clear eyes and bright red or pink gills • Skin should spring back when pressed • Some shellfish must be alive if bought fresh- look for movement

  33. Storing Fish and Shellfish • Refrigerate or freeze immediately • Refrigerate live shellfish in a container covered with a clean, damp cloth • Use fish with 1-2 days or freeze

  34. Assignment • Reteaching 19-4