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Chapter 3 Migration. Key Issue 4 Why do People Migrate Within a Country?. Why do people migrate within a country?. Less disruptive than international Different cultural traditions: language, religion Two Main Types Interregional Rural and urban Intraregional Older cities and suburbs.

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Chapter 3 migration

Chapter 3 Migration

Key Issue 4

Why do People Migrate Within a Country?

Why do people migrate within a country
Why do people migrate within a country?

  • Less disruptive than international

    • Different cultural traditions: language, religion

  • Two Main Types

    • Interregional

      • Rural and urban

    • Intraregional

      • Older cities and suburbs

Interregional migration
Interregional Migration

  • United States

  • Past

    • Lack of farmland lured farmers to frontier for more abundant land

  • Today

    • Mostly for better jobs

Migration between regions within the united states
Migration between Regions within the United States

  • American West

    • Opened up 200yrs ago

  • Mass interregional migration to interior

  • Changing center of population
    Changing Center of Population

    • Population center:

      average location of everyone in the country “center of population gravity”

    • Where the “flat” Earth would balance on a pin

    • 1790, population center was Baltimore, MD

      • Most people were settled along Atlantic Coast

      • Depended on coastal locations

    • Interior obstacles: Appalachian Mountains & Native Americans in West

    Early settlement in the interior
    Early Settlement in the Interior

    • 1830, Population Center moved west: Moorefield, WV

    • Large amounts of fertile and available at low price

    • Transportation improvements opened interior

    • Canals made travel accessible between New York & Great Lakes

    • Steam powered boats

    Early settlement in the interior1
    Early Settlement in the Interior

    • After 1830, Population center moved further west: Cincinnati, Ohio

    • Western pioneers headed toward California

    • Gold Rush, late 1840s

    • Non-stop trip to CA

    • Settlers preferred forested areas (lumber)

    • 40” rain fall for agriculture

    • West of 98th meridian: Interior proved unsuitable

    • Declared region unfit: few trees, little rainfall

    • “Great American Desert”

    • Modern Technology has

      transformed region to become one of world’s “richest” farming areas

    Settlement of the great plains
    Settlement of the Great Plains

    • After 1880, Population center continues to move west, at slower pace

    • More Europeans migrating to US East Coast

    • Balanced out American migration to West Coast

    • People began to settle in Great Plains

    • Dakota Territory

    • 1870: 14,000

    • 1880: 135,000

    • 1890: 539,000

    Settlement of the great plains1
    Settlement of the Great Plains

    • Agricultural Technology

    • Enabled people to farm in Great Plains

    • Barbed wire introduced, no longer needed forests to build fences

    • Windmills & well-drilling to pump water

    Settlement of the great plains2
    Settlement of the Great Plains

    • Expansion of Railroads

    • Transportation for goods to move to populated East Coast

    • Land grants for railroad companies

    • Encouraged more Western Settlers

    • 1980, population center moved west of Mississippi River

    Recent growth of the south
    Recent Growth of the South

    • Late 20th Century, population center moved southward

    • 1980s and 1990s, 5 million moved to South, only 2 million moved out

    • Job opportunities (5% job growth in south compared to average 2-3% for US)

    • Environmental Reasons

    • “sunbelt” temperate climate: outdoor rec activities

    • “rustbelt” Northeast & Midwest: dependency on steel

    Interregional antagonism
    Interregional Antagonism

    • Northeast & Midwest

    • Believe south is stealing jobs/industry

    • Some have relocated, but many are newly created jobs

    • Past to Present

    • 1929 average income was 2/3 lower in South

    • 1960 average income 1/3 lower in South

    • Today, average income ONLY 1/5 lower in South

    • Net migration for African Americans

    • 1900, most African Americans lived in South

    • Forced migration for slavery

    • Africans began to move to larger cities in NE, MidWest and West for jobs

    • Equal amount of African Americans moving N-S as S-N, much more Whites moving South

    • 21st Century,

    • Much LESS interregional migration

      • Net migration from regions is almost ZERO

    • Most new jobs are service sector

      • Location becomes less important

    Migration between regions in other countries
    Migration Between Regions in Other Countries

    • Russia

    • Soviet policy encouraged factory construction NEAR raw materials, not near current populated areas

    • Encouraged interregional migration

    • Fill jobs at mines, factories, construction sites


    • Siberia

    • Far North, 45% land, only 2% population

    • Rich in natural resources: fossil fuels, minerals, forests

    • Soviet gov’t gave incentives to move north (higher wages, paid holidays, early retirement)

    • Harsh climate & remoteness

    • Many workers moved back south

    • Komsomol: young volunteers during summer to construct projects

    • Collapse of Soviet Union  market-based economy

    • Interregional migration no longer encouraged


    • Encouraged interregional migration

    • Mostly populated on Atlantic Coast

      • Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paolo

    • Tropical interior sparsely inhabited

    • Gov’t moved capital from Rio to Brasilia, 600 miles from Atlantic Coast

    • Slow growth at first, resentment of move

    • Rapid population growth: more moving to Brasilia for employment


    • Government encouraging migration FROM Java (most populated island) to less populated ones

    • More than 5 million have moved

    • Incentives: 5 acres of land, materials to build, seeds, pesticides, and food

    • Less recent migration: environmental concerns, disruption of indigenous people, not productive land


    • Moving to regions with higher incomes

    • Italy: Migrating North for job opportunities

      • rich agricultural land & strong industrial base

      • 2x higher income, unemployment 15% less in north

    • United Kingdom:migrating south for job opportunities

    • North: industrial revolution- no longer competitive in global economy

    • Regions closer to European markets have advantage

      • Heart of Europe


    • Gov’t limits ability to migrate from regions

    • Permit is required to visit State of Assam, NE India

    • Protect ethnic identity of region

    • Limit job competition with outsiders

    • Limit international migration

    Migration within one region
    Migration within One Region

    • Since 1800, most intraregional migration in world has been from RURAL to URBAN areas

    Migration from rural to urban areas
    Migration from Rural to Urban Areas

    • Urbanization, 1800s, Europe & North America

    • Rapid industrial development

    • US Population in Urban Areas

    • 1800 5% 1920 50% 2010 75%

    • Pushed from lack of jobs in agriculture, pulled by jobs in factories & service industry

    • Recent years, urban migration is skyrocketing in LDCs

    • Sao Paolo, Brazil: migration is 300,000 per year

    • City cannot support migrants

    • Favelas: squatter settlements, lack electricity, running water, paved streets

    Migration from urban to suburban areas
    Migration from Urban to Suburban Areas

    • Developed countries: Canada, UK, West Europe, US

    • From central cities out to the suburbs

    • NOT related to employment

    • Detached house, private yard, garage, driveway, modern schools

    • Suburbia is rapidly expanding

    • Farms are being converted to housing developments: new roads, sewers, other services

    Migration from metropolitan to nonmetropolitan areas
    Migration from Metropolitan to Nonmetropolitan Areas

    • Late 20th century, MDCs

    • More people migrating INTO rural areas than OUT

    • Counterurbanization

    • Migration from cities & suburbs to small towns and rural communities

    • Lifestyle reasons: live on a farm, own horses, grow vegetables

    • Modern communication & transportation make transition easy

    • Counterurbanization has stopped in US, numbers IN and OUT are about the same