Ch. 3 Migration KI 1: Why do People migrate?
Some Key Terms: • Migration- a permanent move to a new location • Always involves two-way connections • Emigration- migration from a location • Immigration- migration to a location • Net Migration- the difference between the number of immigrants and the number of emigrates • Migration is a form of mobility- general terms covering all types of movements from one place to another
Reasons for Migrating Most people migrate for economic reasons Cultural and environmental factors also induce migration Push factor- induces people to move out of their present location Pull factor- induces people to move into a new location Push/pull factors can be economic, cultural, and environmental
Economic Push and Pull Factors Job opportunities Often job opportunities vary between countries in same region (ie. Mexico and U.S.) U.S. and Canada have been main destinations of economic migrants (from Europe in 19th Century, Latin America Now)
Cultural Push and Pull Factors • Especially compelling push factors • Historically two main factors: slavery and political instability • Slavery no longer a factor but political instability still forces large numbers of people to migrate • Refugees- people who have been forced to migrate from their homes and cannot return because of their race, religi0n, nationality, etc. • Politics can also be pull factor—democratic states • Berlin Wall example—people migrating from East to West Europe
Environmental Push and Pull Factors People are pushed away from physically hazardous regions Many people are pulled towards mountains (rocky mts), seasides (FL), and warmer climates (FL, its amazing) Water is very common environmental push factor (too little—dust bowl; too much—Katrina) Floodplain—the area subject to flooding during a specific number of years
Lack of water: People were pushed from their land in Oklahoma and adjacent states in the 1930s drought known as the Dust Bowl. Wide spread flooding in New Orleans caused roughly 1,400 deaths and forced thousands more from their homes.
Intervening Obstacles An environmental or cultural feature that hinders migration For most of history, have been environment (Oceans, mts, etc.) Globalization and transportation improvements have diminished environmental features that act as intervening obstacles Government and politics is more of an obstacle now (ex. Needing a passport)
Distance of Migration Most migrants relocate a short distance and remain within the same country Long-distance migrants head for major centers of economic activity International vs. Internal Migration (country to country—within one country) Interregional vs. Intraregional (region to region—within one region)
Distance of Migration Ct’d • International migration can be forced or voluntary • Economic push/pull factors usually induce voluntary migration • Cultural push/pull factors usually compel forced migration • Migration transition mirrors demographic transition • Stage 1- none • Stage 2- migration from rural to urban areas • Stage 3 and 4- countries become focal points of international migration and internal migration from cities to suburbs
Characteristics of Migrants Most long-distance migrants are male Most long-distance migrants are also individual adults rather than families Many long distance migrants are looking for work… shift from male dominated migration to more balanced as more women join the work force About 40% of immigrants to U.S. are between ages of 25-39