APHG CH 3: Migration Population Changes from the Movement of People from Place to Place
Geogra phers look at Why & Where People Migrate: Migration: Permanent movt. of ppl across space, from 1 place to another Can be to another country, another city, another continent Geographers look at where ppl move from & to Emigration: move from a place; Immigration: move to a place Net migration = difference betwn the 2 More coming in: net in-migration; More out, net out-migration Mobility: how we move…. & migration is 1 kind of this Another is circulation: daily, monthly, yearly, seasonal Activity space: Area ppl wk & live in...(see lightning rds) • ** Give EX: for each of these 4
BIG geography question: WHY ppl migrate… b/c it causes big changes in cultures & economies in various regions New transportation technology means scale of movement (whether circulation or migration) is much larger now Relocation diffusion much faster, both culture & econ. Place is big part of this diffusion…in global econ., people can move to a place & still earn living (EX?) May move to reunite w/ others who have moved before (Chain migration) Though migration = type of relocation diffusion, can come about b/c of expansion diffusion (Remember 3 types 3? See pp. 30-1)
KEY ISSUE 1 (p.73): Why ppl migrate: **Who was "Ravenstein"? (reasons, distance, characteristics) & 11 laws of migration? A) Why ppl migrate: (Ravenstein’s laws) -push factors: force or encourage people to leave where they live -pull factors: influence ppl to come to a new place --sometimes is 1 or the other…sometimes both 3 major kinds of push/pull factors: economic, cultural, environmental BUT…often hard to say which it is main cause
1)Economic push & pull factors: often if seem to have no jobs in 1 place, will move to where seem to have jobs -can be country to country or region to region in same nation Econ. push & pull: can be job specific: natural resources (miners/engineers) & pop. growth EX? -this was pull for Europeans to US/Canada in 19th cent.-early 20th Also later in 20th, Asians then Latinos; In Scotland: found oil = immigration
Economic migration: Scene from Steinbeck’s The Grapes of WrathThe Dust Bowl in the 1930s led to forced migration from the Great Plains to California & elsewhere:Pushed out from __?_Pulled to_?_
2)Cultural push/pull: can be forced or voluntary 2 main forced cultural: 1)slavery 2)polit. Instability: refugees refugees: people forced to leave b/c of persecution --based on race, relig., nationality, social group member, or polit. opinion -usually from wars & “polit. Instability” Refugees have no home until a country says can stay …or their former country change 17 (?) mill. ( international, internal/interregional) -largest international refugee groups = Palestinians, Iraq & Afghans… -largest internal: Sudan (Darfur), Colombia -also, Congo, Uganda NOTE: InternationalALSO known as TRANSnational
Refugees: Sources & destinations:Major source & destination areas of both international & internal refugees.
Political aspects can also be pull factors if move b/c want freedoms, etc (but other side…avoiding harsh..?) EX: Communists closed border of E. Berlin b/c of "brain drain“ by defection to W. Berlin (democratic govt.) & created Berlin Wall… Iron Curtain: an invisible barrier (separating communist regions from democratic regions…term came from Churchill) Now communism is gone, but is still some economic push/pull at work from E W Eur. 3)Environmental push/pull: pull to attractive regions or pushed from hazardous ones.. --b/c of communic. now, can live in remote attrac. regions & still have access to jobs, shopping, entertainment… EX’s? -Water? *pp. 84-85… list EX:of push/pull from environments
Hurricane Katrina MigrantsA major natural disaster represents an environmental push factorfor forced migration.
4) Intervening obstacles: try to go 1 place…can't get there…so go another place…or way In past was usually environmental (EX?) -transport. changed that & now more often it’s gov'ts. & politics ADD: ***Intervening opportunity: When on your way to migrate to new region, find an even better place (opportunity) and decide to stay there and not move on…) B) Distanceof migration: Ravenstein's 2 main points RE: this: 1) internal 2) international (aka transnational) *2 types of internal migration
Internal migration: a permanent move w/in same country Most migrants relocate short distance & stay in same country Usually easier, plus have less "culture shock” b/c keep same culture 2 typesof internal migr.: a) interregional(from 1 region to another) EX? -typically from farm to city (now sometimes to attractive rural areas) b) intraregional (move but stay w/in same region): most often is from older areas to newer suburbs areas 2) International migration: 2 types: voluntary (usually economic push/pull) & forced (usually cultural)
Zelinsky: Which demographic transition countries (Stgs. 1, 2, 3, 4?) migrate & to where? …says the stage of demographic transition affects migration patterns b/c is migr. results from social & econ. changes that produced demographic trans. Stage 1: not likely to migrate…though has daily or seasonal mobility; too poor, too isolated Stage 2:Are likely: CDR down, NIR up… plus techn. increases so usually see international…but also see some interregional, especially to cities from farms Stages 3 & 4: If migrate, usually is internal… -often cities to suburbs (suburb to city??) **Stg. 2 migrants usually migrate to stg 3 & 4 WHY?
Global Migration Patterns The major flows of migration are from less developed To more developed countries.
Middle East (aka ___ Asia?) w/o Israel indicated Note Bahrain
Region of & around Israel Note Port Said (Suez Canal) & Gulf of Suez
C) Characteristics of migrants: Ravenstein: most male--& adult individuals, & not w/ kids 1) gender of migrants: used to be most males b/c males worked outside homes -in 19th & much of 20th cent. = 54% males Reversed since 1990's, & now = about 54% female especially true of "undocumented" (?) Mex., the largest US immigrant grp. In '80's, 85% = male; since '90's, women = about 50% Shows change in Mex. pop.: more women come for jobs
2) Family status of migrants: According to Ravenstein: Long-distance migrants are mostly young adults, not kids or older people (p.78) especially in the past.. But # of kids immigr. to US now increasing -Most US migrants have less education. than US ppl, but usually more educa. than avg in their country… why? *Mex. immg. shows migra. transitionANDdistance-decay Most of Mex. to USA settle in US border states -Come from various parts of Mex, espec. interior Most work in agri. or clothing factories ***Mostof Mexican migrants USED to work seasonally: Autumn US …. spring Mex. -often = main income for families (live on credit till return) NOW… More likely to bring families and stay… **Why do some US employers prefer to hire undoc.’s instead of to those in w/ permission?
K - 2: Where are migrants distributed …Globally & in USA? About __?__% of the world's pop. are migrants-- (live in countries not born in) A) Global migration patterns: 3 Areas w/ "net out-migration" (p. 78) A__ A___ L_A__ 3 Areas w/ net in-migration: E__ N__ A__ O__ There’s some migra. from _____ to N. Amer. (E.E?) Migr.: usually from LDC's to MDC's…from stg 2 to stg 3 or 4 -40 mill. ppl in US born in other countries today (10th Ed.) -50% born in Lat. Am., 25% Asia, 25% Europe -most of Lat. Am. from Mex. Countries w/ the most immigr.: US, Austr., Canada, France, Germany, India, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, & U.K. But some countries have higher % of pop. as immigr.: USA = 12%Canada=18%UK & Germ.=6% Austral. 25%
New York Harbor & Ellis Island:Ellis Island is connected to New Jersey by bridge. Liberty Island and the Statue of Liberty are south of Ellis Island. (gifted 1885…dedicated 1886)
Ellis Island:Control of immigration given to to the Federal Govt. 1890. Congress appropriated $75,000 to build the 1st Federal immigration station
Map to go with Power of Place #21: Population Geography: US/Mexican Migration & Population Patterns in Guatemala
Highest %: in Mid-East (about 50% immigr.!!) EX: United Arb. Emir.=74+% Kuwait 68+% -main reason is oil (petroleum) industry b/c Arabs won't do the “dirty & dangerous” oil work B) Immigration to USA: US = 3rd highest pop. & most are descended from immigrants …since 1820, 75 mill. 3 main eras of US immigr.: Colonial PeriodMid-1800's-19141970 now
1) Europ. immigration to US (mid-19th cent. to about 1914): 40 mill. Eur. came to US… -about 24 mil. others to Canada, Australia, New Zealand, southern Afri., & southern South Amer. Germany: most Eur. immigr. to USA (7.2 mil) Italy=5.4 mil UK = 5.3 mil Ireland=4.8 mil Russia/former USSR = 4.1 mil NOTE: Germany #’s hi b/c of Poland was once included Were THREE peaks of EUROPEAN migration
1st peak of Eur immigr.: 1607-1850's: At 1st, 90% from Great Brit., thru 1840… (4.3 mill.) 1840-1860 most = N. & W. Eur., including Ireland (?) & Germ. 2nd peak of Eur. Imm.: few in 1860's (why?);up in 1870's -1880's: peaked (1/2 mill.+ per year) -still N & W Eur. ……mostly German & Irish… Then Norway & Sweden got Industri. Rev. …& pop. up, so Scandinavian USA #'s up Fewer farms at home…moved to get farmland or city jobs ESPECIALLY around Great Lakes 3rd peak of Eur. immgr.:1890's thru about 1914 Almost 1 mill. per year!! 1907 = 1.3 mill. Most E. + S. Eur: Italy, Russ., Romania, Austria-Hungary -Indus. Rev. diffused, …CDR down, CBR up, NIR up …ppl looking for jobs In 1910, 14% of US pop. hadat least 1 foreign-born parent In N-E, Michigan, Montana immigr. were 20% of pop.
2) Impact of Eurp. immig.: Eur. imm. declined since 1914 (10% of US immigr. Euro. since 1980) a)Eur. demographic transition: After 1800, rapid pop. growth = emigration out of Eur. CDR down; technology up; pop. up, opportunity down Food production not efficient b/c of split-up family farms To fix: "the enclosure movement”: many pushed off family farms…forced to sell -could go to cities & work factories…or move for farmland MANY Eur. countries forced small farms together…forced ppl off farms (in Engl called "the enclosure movement” ) -many came to US (also Austral., Canada, etc) b/c lots of farmland *USA was Eur.'s "safety valve": Over-pop. drained to US Now Eur. at Stg. 4, so have low NIR & can meet needs of their own pop. ….so less need to migrate
b)Diffusion of European culture: 60 mill. Europeans migrating brought world-wide culture changes -50% of world's ppl speak Indo-Europ. languages -Christianity now largest single religion -Eur. art, literature, music, philosophy, & ethics became recognized world-wide…more acceptance -Eur. political systems & econ. systems also diffused Problems from Eur.: Boundaries made w/o concern for local ethnic grps & customs later became big trouble (like WWI) Also forced new values & political domination on colonies, especially Asian & African areas Eur. also used resources of those countries -the wealth back to the colonial power, not build econ. of dominated colonies This policy is known as imperialism (“empires”)
3)Recent immigration from LD regions: 1930's-40's: immigr. down in USA (Great Depression…then WWII) US: more emigration than immigr. …so = __ ?__ 1950’s: immigr. up again…. & more in '60-70's Huge #’s in '80's & '90‘s--highest ever (mostly Asia/Lat.Am) Asian steadily up…but Lat. Amer. fluctuates… a) Immigration from Asia: 1800-1950 only 1 mill. total to US -mostly Chinese, Turkish, & Japanese immigr. -since 1975, about 7 mill. from Asia…in late '70's thru '80's, Asia = #1 in immigr. to USA (Vietnam?) -in '90's, top 3 from Asia were China, Philippines, & Vietnam (50%+) Thru 20th cent., most Asians to US from China (includes Taiwan) & India… (2 most pop. countries,Both Stg. 2) Canada:40%+ of immigr. are Asians; but they get more Eur. than US…& less Latin Amer. (what theory?) per capita, Canada: 50% more immigr. than US
b) Immigration from Latin Amer.: From 1820-1960, about 2 mill. came from Latin Amer. 1960-2000: were 10 mill. In 1980, Mex. passed Germany as country that sent most immigr. to US: so far 9-11 mil.,…& 100,000 per yr. In 1990's from Lat. Am.: 2nd highest = El Salvador (war); 3rd = Cuba; 4th = Haiti -1986: Immigra. Reform & Control Act (R. Regan): visas given to several hundred thousand undoc. immigr. who'd come in yrs. b4 (amnesty) #'s went up in 1990: 1.5 mill.; 1991: 1.8 mill in 1 year…most ever So….US immigr.= N+W Eur S+E Eur Asian Lat. Am. But reason why = same: poor home conditions hope for econ. opportunity & social advancement in US Lat. Amer. most now in stage 2…but US no longer wide open Land growing scarce & "frontier" that was open to all b4 is now closed
Migration from Asia to the U.S. Migration in 2006. The largest #’s of Asian migrants come from India, China, the Philippines, & Vietnam.
Migration from Latin America to U.S. Mexico: the largest source of migrants to the U.S., But migrants have also come from numerous other Latin American nations.
Undocumented Immigration:Mexico to Arizona The complex route of one group of undocumented migrants from a small village north of Mexico City to Phoenix, Arizona.
Undocumented Immigrants in the USCalifornia, Texas, & Florida are the leading destinations for undocumented immigrants to the U.S.
U.S. - Mexico Borderat TijuanaThe U.S. side of the border is uninhabited and separated from Mexico by a fence
4) Destination of immigrants w/in US: which go where?? Tend to be clustered: (these are internat’l. migrants) -about 1/4 in Calif. -1/4 in NY/NJ -about 1/4 in Tex/Fla/Illinois -last 1/4 in other 44 states Immigr. used to come by water…….now land & air -from Mex. Go mostly to Calif/Tex/Illin -from Carib.: go to NY/Fla. -Asians … go mostly to Calif./NY … - E. Europ. ….to NY & Illinois ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 things influence where to go: a) -proximitycan influence: EX: = Mex. to Tex/Calif (d.d?) b) –going to same culture: others go where is large settlements of ppl. from their own countries…i.e., Iranians to Calif., Poles to Illin. This = chain migration: settling in place b/c of large # of others of your culture there (EX: Italians NY, etc.)
5) Undocumented immigration to US: Those coming w/o permission (illegally); no sure #’s -US may have 11-12 mill undoc. immigr. According to I.N.S. (?): most Mex. (about 5 mill) -Next: other Lat. Amer. ( about 2 mil.) -About 2 mill. from rest of world (Asia, Eur., Can., & other places) But most from Mex. …& they want to work, but have no visas (?) (What are “aliens?”) About 1/2 of undoc.'s come legally (students, tourists) -stay after permission expires other slip over borders Once here, get fake "documents" (birth certif., alien registra. card, SSN = $25)… When caught INS escorts them back…and most not prosecuted b/c of time/$$--&many come right back
1986 IRCA(? ): tried to help curb this, but many who qualified would not come forward b/c feared Immigration & Naturalization Service (INS) (La Migra) -IRCA also made it crime for employers to hire undoc's Now can be fined or imprisoned if they hire undoc’s Employers are required to verify their workers a) Crossing US-Mex border “fence”: It’s easy …b/c broken in many places …(often harder to get to the border than get across it) USA has border guards, but not enough…It is a HUGE area Coyote (aka polleo) : “people smugglers” who bring them in -entire trip can cost several hundred $$ Maquiladoras:US industries on Mex. Side of border that have close location to US markets, but use cheap labor of Mex.
\Why do we need to control undocumented immigrants? It can hurt our unemployment rate Increases needed human services (schools, kids med’s., etc.) often w/o paying taxes Why can undoc's be helpful? Often do jobs others won't
Migration to U.S., by region of originMost migrants to U.S. were from Europe until the ’60’s. Since then, Latin Am. & Asia have become the main sources of U.S. immigrants.
Net Migration (per population) Net migration per 1,000 population. The U.S. has the largest number of immigrants, but other developed countries also have relatively large numbers.
U.S. States as Immigrant Destinations : California is the destination of about 25% of all US immigrants; another 25% go to NY & NJ. Other important destinations include FL, TX., & Illinois.
K-3: WHY Migrants Face Obstacles: A)Controlling Immigr.: Policies ofhostcountries: 1) USA: US quota laws: 1921: 1st US restrictions of immigr. Quota Act ('21) & National Origins Act ('24) Purpose: restrict Asians coming in to W. coast (Chin./Japan.) Q-A set # of ppl from each country allowed in w/in 1 yr. -# based on % of people already here, so it favored Europ. (especially N & W, notE & S: 1890 was “line”) These laws were made to keep "other types" out -’20’s: W. Coast began to fear the "yellow peril"…large # of Asians into Pacific Coast area... West Coast laws were passed to also restrict land ownership of Asian immigrants ….but not European immigr. Laws stayed same …until 1965
1965 Immigration Act passed which had no country quotas, but set quotas by hemisphere: 170,000 E. & 120,000 W. 1978: global quota (290,000), w/ max. of 20,000 per country 1990Immigra. Act: # up to 500,000 global quota. Preferences w/in these #'s: -if have family here…get some preference (chain migr.?) -skilled workers & talented professionals get certain # of visas -also some for those from countries w/o many US immigr. Asians use system well…. -get in w/ profession, then bring family 1 by 1 Some are poor & trying to get ahead…..but most are young professionals… -MD's, PhD's, researchers, etc who see US as better chance for advancement
Other countries resent this & say these US preferences cause "brain drain" of their best & brightest ppl http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2009/03/10/us/20090310-immigration-explorer.html (2) Temporary migration for work: guest workers vs. time-contract workers: Many, esp. W. Eur. & Mid-East, use guest workers as temporary workers Most of Asia uses time-contract workers In Eur. most g-w have govt. protections: min. wage, etc Guest-wkrs. can be as high as 10% of pop. (Switz. & Luxembourg) They do low status, low skill jobs others won't... -garbage collectors, dishwashers, bus drivers, etc.
Advantages for guest-worker's home country: --Lowers unemploy. Rates --$$ sent home by workers stimulates local economies UK: when gave up colonies, said those could choose UK or home citizenship…but couldn't bring families later Most EUR. guest workers from N. Afr., Mid-East, E. Eur., Asia Countries often favors those from former colonies EX’s: France: Algiers & Morocco UK: India, Jamaica, etc
Guest Workers in Europe Guest workers emigrate mainly from E. Europe & North Africa to work in the wealthier countries of W. Europe. NOTE:ADD term! Counter-migration: Deportation of illegal immigrants
----------------------- 3) Time-contract workers: Japanese, Filipinos, Indians, etc.,to various colonies, etc., needing workers in mines, plantations, etc …stayed there after contract’s up Western US: Chinese (late 1860's) for RR construction About 29 million Chinese now live in places other than China EX: Singapore pop. = 75% Chinese Asian countries also have "illegal" workers EX: Taiwan: around 50,000, but like USA, they do work others won‘t
4) Economic migrants vs. refugees:Why it matters? B/c are treated differently in some countries EX:US, Canada, & W. Eur: allow refugees in if fleeing undemocratic (Communist)govt. (political asylum) Espec. in Vietnam, Cuba, Haiti Econ. migrants: usually not let in w/o a special skill Refugees can get priority treatment RE: admission EX’s: a) Emigrants from Cuba: 1959 Cuban communist revol. & Fidel Castro: US saw Cubans as polit. refugees -Castro took over businesses/farms, etc, & opponents were jailed -US still prohibits business/govt dealings w/ Cuba (but what about China?) 1960: 600,000 Cubans allowed into US… mostly went to Fla. 2nd wave of Cuban refugees Mariel boat-lift