Cold War . Vocabulary . superpower - a powerful nation, especially one capable of influencing international events and the acts and policies of less powerful nations. Nuclear - pertaining to or involving atomic weapons:
superpower - a powerful nation, especially one capable of influencing international events and the acts and policies of less powerful nations.
Nuclear- pertaining to or involving atomic weapons:
Iron Curtain - The military, political, and ideological barrier established between the Soviet bloc and western Europe from 1945 to 1990
Containment - Truman’s idea to keep the Soviet Union from expanding their territory and influence
Eastern Bloc- The countries of eastern and central Europe that were under Soviet domination from the end of World War II until the collapse of the Soviet communist system in 1989–91, usually considered to include Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)- United States, Canada, and 10 Western European countries agreed to protect each other from the Soviet Union or any other Communist nation.
Warsaw pact- Agreement between the Soviet Union and seven Eastern European to help each other if one was attacked. They also put down any rebellions against Communism.
Glasnost - a Soviet Policy started by Gorbachev that allowed open discussion about the political system. Allowed freedom of speech and free elections.
Take a few minutes to complete your K-W-L Chart
Separation of powers
Keep one person or group
From having complete
All people are free and equal.
“Life, Liberty, and Property”
People need to form
Wrote - The Communist Manifesto Business owners treat workers unfairly to in order to make money. The rich stay rich and the poor stay poor. Feel there should be no classes and people should share wealth
Came to power during the Russian Revolution. Promised peace, food, and land. Became a dictator and started communism in Russia
private ownership of property
free elections with choice of parties
Freedom of press
State controls media: dissent crushed
high degree of the individual freedom
state ownership of property
free enterprise economy
No guaranteed employment for workers
Freedom of speech and religion suppressed
At the end of WWII, the Allies agreed to divide Germany into occupied zones. Berlin, Germany’s capital, would also be divided.
As competition and tension increased, Berlin’s location caused problems.
In June 1948, Stalin decided to
close all roads into Berlin from
West Germany. People in West
Berlin now faced shortages and
The United States is unwilling to give up West Berlin, but also unwilling to let Berliners starve. President Truman decides to use an airlift.
For nearly a year, the U.S. dropped supplies into West Berlin daily.
After almost a year, Stalin gave in and reopened roads from the West. Berlin became a symbol of Freedom.
By 1949, the Soviet Union had developed its own atomic bomb. This was the start of the nuclear arms race where both countries competed to build the most powerful arsenals of weapons.
Hydrogen bombs were 1,000 X more powerful than the atomic bomb.
ICBMs could hit targets around the world. This constant fear of nuclear attack led to an atmosphere of tension.
Both countries followed a policy of “mutually assured destruction”.
The U.S. and U.S.S.R. competed for cultural and technological dominance. The country that ruled space would be seen as the world leader.
1957: Sputnik I- First artificial satellite. Sputnik II- First animal in space: Laika
1958: Explorer 1 & 2- The U.S. reaches orbit.
1961: Yuri Gagarin becomes the first man in space.
1964: First close range images of the moon.
1969: Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin set foot on the moon.
Spies on both sides gathered information on each other’s
Spying both caused and prevented conflicts.
Many of today’s most popular technologies are possible because of Cold War espionage.
1987- Ronald Reagan- “Tear down this wall!”
Gorbachev’s glasnost policy allowed communist countries to make their own choices. Many chose democratic systems. Support for communism fell throughout the world, ending in the collapse of the Soviet Union.