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Cold War
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  1. Cold War Chapter 32

  2. I. Introduction • Cold War- No Fighting • Soviet Union continued to expand after being given territory during and after WWII • United States tried to go back to isolationism but felt they could not with the Soviet Union causing problems • Berlin was divided up among the WWII Victors • Boils down to West (Democratic) and East (Communist) • Berlin Airlift (1948) • Berlin Wall (Nov 9, 1989)

  3. II. Cold War • Western European colonies started to break free from their western bonds • Soviet Union stepped into this power vacuum • Installed Communist Regimes in Eastern Bloc (Eastern Europe) • US steps up to stop Soviet union • Truman Doctrine- “the policy of the United States to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.” • Marshall Plan- US loaned money to help Western nations to rebuild

  4. II. Cold War • NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organization • US, Canada and Western Europe • Warsaw Pact • Formed in response to NATO • Soviet Union and its Eastern Europe satellites • Soviet Union and US were on the verge of a nuclear war • MAD- Mutually Assured Destruction

  5. II. Cold War • Increase in formal espionage • US- Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) • Soviet- KomitetGosudarstvennoyBezopasnosti (KGB)- State Security Committee • UK- MI-5 and MI-6 • Corona and Hexagon Programs

  6. II. Cold War • Areas of Conflict • Resulted as a part of Containment Policy • Korea • Already divided as a result of post WWII treaty • Communist North attacks South Korea • US gets involved and pushes into North Korea • China backs up North Korea, and sends “volunteers” to help • General MacArthur relieved of duty for trying to invade China • Ends back at the 38th N. Parallel

  7. II. Cold War • Areas of Conflict Continued • Vietnam • US got involved as a result of France asking for help • Communist North was trying to take over Democratic South • Up until that point- Most ordinance ever dropped • Up to 550,000 American troops • US pulls out as a result of extreme anti-war pressure at home • South Vietnam later falls

  8. II. Cold War • Areas of Conflict Continued • Cuba • Communist Fidel Castro took over • Bay of Pigs- Failed rebellion • Soviet Union planned on building a military base and missile base on Cuba (October 14-28, 1962) • Almost brought about an armed conflict • Soviet Union eventually backs off on the missiles but keeps the military base

  9. II. Cold War • Space Race • Sputnik- 1st man-made satellite October 4, 1957 • Soviets first man in space on April 12, 1961 • US- 1st men on the moon July 20, 1969 • Purpose • Plan was to gain surveillance advantages • 1st goal was manned surveillance • 2nd goal was satellite surveillance • Concern was a nuclear missile satellite

  10. III. Changes in Society • United States and most of Western Europe went through an economic boom • Europe formed the European Union- made trade easier-eventually brings about Euro • Increase in materialism and consumer goods • Welfare State- Started with Great Britain as a result of the hardships of the war • Government became more involved in economic planning • Tried to even out social inequalities for poor • Unemployment, medical care, family assistance and public housing • Does improve overall life of poor but at a cost to taxpayers

  11. III. Changes in Society • Red Scare and McCarthyism • 40s-50s- people conformed more to social ideologies (Leave it to Beaver) • Green Movement- political movement (1970’s) • Focuses on environmental issues, “social justice” and grassroots democracy • Wary of extreme economic growth

  12. III. Changes in Society • Women Revolution and Sexual Revolution • Increase in Leisure activities- women have more time with use of appliances • Peers become more important • Women enter into workforce and more goods are marketed to them • Women gain the right to vote • Easy access to divorce • Birth Control • Brief Baby Boom 1943-1960 • Approved by FDA in 1960 • Casual sex becomes more prevalent

  13. III. Changes in Society • Pop Culture • Coca-cola-nization- Spread of US goods to Europe • The Beatles • US TV- Bonanza & Dallas

  14. IV. Downfall • Soviet Union was very repressive • Limited Orthodox Church • Most of power held under Stalin • Purges and excesses • Stagnant Economy- but boasted greatness • Nikita Khrushchev- gained power after Stalin- DeStalinization • Allowed a little more freedom • Major economic “Economic Contest” with US • Cuban Missile Crisis • Olympics • Space Race (part)

  15. IV. Downfall • Invasion of Afghanistan under Brezhnev • US and Allies got involved • Funded mujahideen • Brought to light the problems of Soviet Union • Economic downfall • Could not continue to fund arms race • Alcoholism • Unrealistic economic plans • Quantity vs. Quality • CIA missed this? Odren insight

  16. V. Conclusion • Cold War brought about some of the problems with Afghanistan and under terroristic organizations • Soviet Union eventually collapses • Government involvement in Economy • Major Reforms in US • Change in the view of the US Presidents