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APA STYLE INTRO. Week 6. Order of Business. Turn in Survey M&R Papers Return Quiz Experiment Review from Last Week APA Introduction Section Literature Review. Quiz. IVs and DVs Coke vs. # of sodas per day Correlational vs. Experimental research. Repetition/LOP.

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order of business
Order of Business
  • Turn in Survey M&R Papers
  • Return Quiz
  • Experiment Review from Last Week
  • APA Introduction Section
  • Literature Review
  • IVs and DVs
    • Coke vs. # of sodas per day
  • Correlational vs. Experimental research
repetition lop
  • The variables were Level of Processing (Semantic vs Non-Semantic) and if the word was repeated (repeat/non-repeat)
  • The experiment was a 2 x 2 mixed factorial design
    • Between Subjects Variable: Level of Processing
    • Within Subjects Variable: Repetition
  • What are the DV’s/IV’s?
studying human memory
Studying Human Memory
  • Studying encoding effects
    • Perform some kind of operation on items within a list
      • How many vowels in each word?
      • How useful is this item on a desert island?
    • Memory is later tested on these items
      • Test is often unexpected and given without warning
        • That’s why you did the long division problems
        • Incidental learning
repetition lop results
Condition 1

(Desert Island)



Mean correct recall: 58%

Min= 31%, Max= 81%

Standard Deviation: 0.14



Mean correct recall: 33%

Min= 0%, Max= 62%

Standard Deviation: 0.18

Condition 2

(counting vowels)



Mean correct recall: 33%

Min= 13%, Max= 56%

Standard Deviation: 0.13



Mean correct recall: 11%

Min= 0%, Max= 23%

Standard Deviation: 0.09

Repetition/LOP Results
levels of processing
Levels of Processing
  • Craik and Tulving, 1975
    • Memory for information depends on the depth that the information was processed
      • Shallow processing - physical, perceptual characteristics
      • Deep processing - semantically, meaningfully
    • Recognition is better for words processed via meaning
    • Deeper processing leads to better encoding
the hypotheses
1) It was expected that processing words semantically would lead to better recall than processing words non-semantically.

2) If repetition influenced word recall, then the repeated words would be more successfully recalled

The Hypotheses
apa introduction section
APA Introduction Section
  • What is covered in the Intro section?

Your reason for doing the current study.

    • What is the general area/topic you are researching?
    • What research has been done in the past?
    • Why is your study the obvious next step?
    • Briefly, what will you do in your study?
more specifically
I. Define or Identify the general topic, issue, or area of concern.

II. Review the current and past literature

III. Summarize the literature you chose.

IV. State your hypothesis.

More specifically…
i define or identify the general topic issue or area of concern
I. Define or Identify the general topic, issue, or area of concern.
  • Point out overall trends.
  • Point out conflicts in:
    • theory – do researchers differ in how they define it?
    • methodology – do researchers differ in how they study it?
    • evidence – do researchers differ in what they find?
    • conclusions – do researchers differ in what they conclude from the data?
  • How can we apply this to source monitoring and levels of processing?
    • What can we look for?
ii review the literature
II. Review the literature
  • As a general rule: start broad, end narrow!
  • Group similar types of studies together based on:
      • topic –what they studied
      • type – how they studied it
      • findings – what they found
    • Only review an individual article in detail if it is very relevant to your current study.
    • Provide umbrella sentences at the beginning of the paragraph or sections.
    • Tell how these studies are all alike, why are you grouping them together?
iii summarize
III. Summarize
  • Summarize the major contributions of the articles you have reviewed (2 sentences to 2 paragraphs).
    • Point out flaws, gaps, or inconsistencies in the previous research.
  • Explain how your study is the next logical step--how will your study fill a gap, help clarify inconsistencies?
  • How could our study possibly be a next step?
iv state your hypothesis
IV. State your hypothesis
  • State your hypothesis (your prediction).
  • Briefly describe how your study methods will address the research question.

Start Broad…

Define/Identify Topic/Area of Concern

Review Literature




End Narrow!

  • You will need 4 references from primary sources (ie, journal articles)
  • I will supply you with 2 of them
    • You may want to find others that work better for your intro
  • Review article and database searching
    • Notes from week 1
half the work is already done
Half the work is already done
  • Kronlund, A., and B.W.A. Whittlesea (2005) Seeing Double: Levels of Processing Can Cause False Memory. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 59(1), 11-16
  • Challis, B.H., and R. Sidhu (1993) Dissociative Effect of Massed Repetition on Implicit and Explicit Measures of Memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition 19(1), 115-127
    • Focus on Experiment 1 for this paper
for next week
For next week…
  • Use E-Journal Finder to download the two articles I give you
  • Find and Read 2 additional articles relevant to the topic of levels Of processing
    • Suggestions:
      • Use the reference list of either of the articles I gave you and look on the GMU library website.
      • Keyword search: “Levels of Processing” / “Source Monitoring/Memory”
  • Use these materials to write Intro section rough draft
    • This Draft should be at least 7-8 paragraphs long
  • Include the abstracts of the articles you found on your own
    • Copy and Paste the abstract at the end of your draft
in class workshop
In Class Workshop
  • This will be a two part workshop:

1) I will give you 1 theory with some basic background information along with some “studies” which can be used to aid your argument

2) We will go over ways to present levels of processing and repetition in an interesting story

theory of senioritis
Theory of Senioritis
  • Theory of Senioritis - as the academic year progresses and Spring graduation looms students become less and less motivated to work. This lack of motivation comes about due to decreased activation in the frontal lobe

Purpose of the study: Find mechanisms for the decrease of activation

past research on senioritis
Past Research on Senioritis
  • “Seniors have higher levels of slackotonin than Freshmen”
    • Billy and Banks, 2006
  • “ERP research has shown that Slackotonin has been shown to decrease overall brain activity in the frontal lobe”
    • Oscar and Grouch, 2005
  • “Slackotonin has been shown to reach peak levels during warmer periods of the year due”
    • George, Bush, and Junior, 2007
in class writing task
In-Class Writing Task
  • Write two to three Intro-esque paragraphs
  • Your first paragraph will introduce the topic (Senioritis) and why this topic should receive attention
  • Your second paragraph will connect the past research (with proper references) into a logical argument supporting the study you will be proposing
  • Your last paragraph will introduce your study and emphasize how you will address the research question
levels of processing and source monitoring
Levels of Processing and Source Monitoring
  • So let’s develop a little outline for how we should frame our argument