Who is Rudyard Kipling? • He left India at the age of 5 and moved to England to attend school. • He eventually moved back to India in his adult years, which is where many of his stories take place. • He introduces a vivid cast of human and animal characters which gained popularity in 1907. As a result, he won a Nobel Prize in literature.
Who are the Mongoose and the Cobra? The mongoose and the cobra are a pair of natural enemies-a pair that will fight to the death. The mongoose, a mammal growing to a length of only 16 inches, seems hardly a match for the poisonous cobra, a snake that averages 6 feet in length. However, the mongoose’s speed and agility make it a powerful fighter.
Anthropomorphism • In the story, Rikki-Tikki-Tavi, Kipling will combine his knowledge of the plants and animals of India with a tradition of tales about animals who exhibit human characteristics. • What other stories or movies can you think of that involve this attribution?
ANALYZING ANTHROPOMORPHISM • ANTHROPOMORPHISM: describing animals in human terms. WITH YOUR TABLE DISCUSS: Name some cartoon animal characters. How do they act like humans?
Social Studies Connection • Between the early 1600’s and 1757, the British East India Company gained control of much of India. In 1851, the British government took direct control. • As more Indians became educated and took jobs in government, they wanted to have more say in how their country was run. • Mahatma Gandibecame a leader in the fight for Indian peace which was achieved in 1947.
RIKKI-TIKKI-TAVI VOCABULARY COPY THESE IN YOUR BINDER
Revive (verb) • REVIVE: to return to life or consciousness Rikki-tikki lost consciousness when he almost drowned. Teddy’s mother was able to revive him.
Cower (verb) COWER: to crouch or shrink down in fear The birds could only cower in their nest when they heard the snakes approaching.
Fledgling (noun) • FLEDGLING: a young bird that has recently grown its flight feathers. The birds worried that the snakes would attack the fledgling if it fell out of the nest.
Gait ( noun ) • GAIT: A manner of walking or moving on foot. Teddy noticed that Rikki-tikki had an unusual gait. He rocked and swayed as he crossed the room.
Valiant (adjective) • VALIANT: brave; courageous Rikki-tikki showed he was a valiant mongoose. He fought the snakes even though he felt afraid. This word comes from the Latin root val, which can mean to be strong or to be well, worthy, or able Think about the meanings of similar words: valid, value
Singe ( verb ) • SINGE: to burn lightly When the gun went off, Rikki-tikki was afraid the heat might singe his fur.
Consolation (noun) • CONSOLATION: a comfort Rikki-tikki heard the birds’ sad story. He offered them consolation.
Cunningly (adverb) • CUNNINGLY: in a clever way that is meant to trick or deceive. One snake cunningly tried to distract Rikki-tikki. Then the other snake attacked him.
Idioms- expressions whose words as a group have a meaning unlike the words taken one by one. (figurative language – not literal) • Idioms come from all different sources, from the bible, to horse racing, from ancient fables to modern slang (colloquialisms). • When an expression is overused and “stale” they become known as “cliché”
Some idioms from Rikki-tikki • “eaten up…with” means consumed by, full of • “to and fro” means in one direction and then another; back and forth • “off his guard” means in an unprotected position • “make an end of” means to kill • “trying to make up his mind” means trying to choose what to do • “featherbrained” means silly or lacking good sense • “settle (my) account with” means have my revenge.
Suspense • Suspense is a feeling of growing tension and excitement. You may feel suspense when you watch a mystery on TV and you’re about to find out who committed the crime. Writers may build suspense by using FORESHADOWING, clues or hints about what will happen later. Some foreshadowing clues are unusual statements or strong warnings made by characters in the story.
Predict • A prediction is a reasonable guess about what will happen in a story. When you make predictions, you stay involved because you want to find out if your predictions are correct.
Follow these steps to make a prediction. • Review what you already know about the setting and the plot. • Guess what the characters might do next. What events might result? • Base your prediction on characters’ words, actions, and personalities.
Additional terms… • See page 4 in your Interactive Reader workbook for some academic vocabulary you will be responsible for. CONFLICT, SETTING, PLOT (exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, resolution) FORESHADOWING, SUSPENSE