lesser subjunctive clauses n.
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‘Lesser’ Subjunctive Clauses
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  1. ‘Lesser’ Subjunctive Clauses

  2. Dependent Subjunctives Purpose Result Jussive Noun Clause Indirect Question Cum Circumstantial Cum Causal Cum Concessive Qui Characteristic Qui Purpose Qui Result Fearing Clauses Prevention Clauses Dum Clause/Proviso

  3. Dependent Subjunctives Purpose Result Jussive Noun Clause Indirect Question Cum Circumstantial Cum Causal Cum Concessive Qui Characteristic Qui Purpose Qui Result Fearing Clauses Prevention Clauses Dum Clause/Proviso

  4. Dependent Subjunctives use the Sequence of Tenses except for cum clauses. Remember???

  5. Fearing Clauses occur when a verb or expression of fearing introduces a subordinate clause that describes the thing feared. I am afraid that I may not have done well on that test. I fear lestLatin give me a headache today. This type of subordinate clause is called a Fearing Clause and takes a Subjunctive Verb. Fearing Clauses are introduced by either ut** or nē. ** In early Latin, the double negative nē . . . nōnis used in the place of ut.** Fearing Clauses

  6. Fearing Clauses Therefore, Fearing Clauses can be described thus: Verb of Fearing + ut/nē + Subjunctive When translating a Fearing Clause, utand nē are best translated thus: ut = that not nē = lest/that

  7. Fearing Clauses Magnoperemetuitnēfilius in bellōmoriātur. He fears greatly lest (his) son (may) be killed in war. Pater timēbatutfīlius ē bellōredīsset. The father was afraidthat (his) son might not have returned from war. Ūnacūrasociōsmovēbat: nēRōmānīauxiliumnōnmitterent. One care moved the allies: that the Romans wouldnot send help.

  8. Practice Magnus mihi erat timor ut post haec Rōmam reditūrus essēs. Great was my fear that you had been fixin’ to return to Rome after these things. Mīles glōriae cupidus metuit ut fortiter pugnāns ab imperātōre nōn spectētur. The soldier, desirous of glory, feared that, fighting bravely, he might not be seen by the general. Dī mē amant nec metuō nē poenīs eōrum opprimar. The gods love me and I do not fear lest I be attacked by their punishments. Haud cōnsulēs metuēbant nē quisquam ē cīvibus piīs urbem hostibus trāderet. The consuls hardly feared lest anyone out of the pious citizens might hand over the city to the enemies.

  9. Prevention Clauses Prevention Clauses occur when a verb of hindering or preventing introduces a subordinate clause that expresses the action hindered or prevented. This clause is called a Prevention Clause and is introduced by quōminus (by which the less), nē (that not), or quīn (that). Therefore, a Prevention Clause can be described thus: Verb of Hindering + quōminus/nē/quīn + subjunctive

  10. Prevention Clauses Here is a list of the commonest verbs of hindering:

  11. Prevention Clauses Translating Prevention Clauses into English is a little bit tricky because English does not use a subordinate clause after a verb of hindering: Dēterrēbisne mē nē hoc faciam? Will you prevent me fromdoing this? In English, the gerund is used with the preposition from. Therefore, although a full subordinate clause is employed in Latin, one translates a Prevention Clause into English by the phrase “from verbing ______”.

  12. Prevention Clauses Quid tibi obstatnē Rōmā discēdās? What hinders you from departing (from) Rome? Timor mē dēterruitquōminus in senātū bene dīcerem. Fear deterred me from speaking well in the senate. Bellum nōn dēterrēbitquīn agicolae in agrīs labōrent. War will not deter the farmers from working in the fields.

  13. Prevention Clauses Two verbs of Hindering, vetō and prohibeō, however, DO NOT use the Prevention Clause with a subjunctive verb. Instead, they use the Accusative/Infinitive construction (cf. Indirect Statement). Caesar suōsprohibuit castra relinquere. Caesar prohibitedhis men from leaving the camps. Tēvetō dē hīs loquī. I forbidyoufrom speaking about these things.

  14. Practice Vīsne mihi obstāre nē hoc quod incēpī opus cōnficiam? Do you want to prevent me from completing this work that I have started? Vulnera saeva eum nōn impediēbant quīn in prīmā aciē stāret. Severe wounds did not stop him from standing on the front line. Quae rēs tam gravis accidit ut ā mīlitibus Rōmānīs dēterreāmur nē in forō adsīmus? What matter has happened so serious that we are deterred by the Roman soldiers from being present in the forum? Pater vōs vetuit, ō puerī, illās puellās per viās sequī. Ego quoque vōs prohibeō. Father has forbidden y’all, o boys, from following those girls through the streets. I also prohibit y’all (from doing so).

  15. Clauses of Dum! A general dum clause starts with the word dum or dōnec and can take either an indicative or subjunctive verb. If the verb is indicative, the clause is translated normally, indicating that the action has been accomplished. Dum mē amābās,fēlīx eram. While you were loving me, I was happy. DōnecAugustus Romam rexit, omnia bona erant. WhileAugustus ruled Rome, everything was good.

  16. Clauses of Dum! A general dum cluse starts with the word dum or dōnec and can take either an indicative or subjunctive verb. If the verb is subjunctive, the clause is translated differently, indicating that the action is anticipated and has not already been accomplished. This is translated into English as “until . . .should” Dum mē, Ō pulcherrima, amēs, dolore aeternō semper vivam! Until you should love me, O most beautiful girl, I shall always live in everlasting pain!

  17. Clauses of Dum! Dum mē amābās,fēlīx eram. While you were loving me, I was happy. In illō locō manēbant dum verba Cicerōnis audīrent. They remained in that place, until they should hear the words of Cicero ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- Dum mē, Ō pulcherrima, amās, dolore aeternō semper vivam! While you should love me, O most beautiful girl, I shall always live in everlasting pain! Dum mē, Ō pulcherrima, amēs, dolore aeternō semper vivam! Until you should love me, O most beautiful girl, I shall always live in everlasting pain!

  18. Proviso Clauses When dum clause starts with the word dum, takes a verb in the subjunctive and strengthens the clause with the word modo, it is called a proviso clause. Proviso clauses state the provision under which the even of the main verb can occur. Proviso clauses can be translated as either “provided that” or “with the provision that” Nē is used to negate a proviso clause Magnō mē metū līberābis dum modointer mē atque tē mūrus sit. You will free me from great fear, provided that there is a wall between you and me. Iūlia poētās canentēs audiatdumverbumnēdīcat.** Let Julia listen to the poets singing, with the provision that she not say a word.

  19. Homework • HW 52