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  1. Noun Clauses Grammar 3 Lecture 2 L. Margo Arnold, presenter, By: EmanAlkatheery

  2. Eman Alkatheery Noun Clauses A noun clause is a dependent clause that functions as a noun in a sentence. It is used as a subject, an object of a verb, an object of a preposition, and a complement (table 7.1. – p. 296). Never separate a noun clause from the main clause with commas or other punctuation marks since noun clauses are part of main clauses.

  3. Eman Alkatheery Noun Clauses Noun clauses come at the beginning of a sentence or after certain nouns, adjectives, and verbs such as:

  4. Eman Alkatheery Types of Noun Clauses 1. That clauses. It begins with (that). Example: She thought that the exam was cancelled. 2. Subjunctive clauses. It begins with (that). However, the verb of the noun clause is in the subjunctive mode. Example: It is urgent that Ali submit the report today.

  5. Eman Alkatheery Types of Noun Clauses 3. If/Whether clauses. It begins with (if or whether). Example: The teacher wants to know if the students understood the formula. 4. WH-Question clauses. It begins with a question word e.g. where, what, who, when, or how. Example: I don’t know who she is.

  6. Eman Alkatheery Noun Clauses Examples: Subject That Ahmad can fly is unbelievable. The story is unbelievable. Object of a verb People once believed that the world was flat. They believed the story.

  7. Eman Alkatheery Noun Clauses Examples: Object of a preposition I listened to what he said. I listened tothe story. Complement A major concern ishow fast these changes are happening. A major concern isthe fast changes. Practice 1, p. 297

  8. Eman Alkatheery Noun Clauses PART ONE: CLAUSES WITH THAT; REPORTED SPEECH (PP. 295 – 303)

  9. Eman Alkatheery Clauses with that A that clause can appear in different places: • After the independent clause verb: The student hopesthat his excuse will be accepted. • After some adjectives: Example: glad, sad, happy, worried, sorry, …etc The class was happy that the teacher cancelled the exam.

  10. Eman Alkatheery Clauses with that 3. After some nouns: Example: idea, theory, opinion, claim, fact, etc. People didn’t believe the theorythat the Earth revolves around the sun. 4. At the beginning of a sentence: That Huda came late was predictable.

  11. Eman Alkatheery Clauses with that Examples: I think that she is a good writer. That Ahmad cheated in the exam was surprising. That Nawal needs a job is obvious. It is obvious that Nawal needs a job.

  12. Eman Alkatheery Clauses with that Examples: That Sarah has no friends is a pity. The teacher mentioned that China has a strong economy. I am glad that my sister passed the math exam. It did not surprise me that Huda was late.

  13. Eman Alkatheery Clauses with that Examples: I believe that motherhood is a big responsibility. That the sun rises from the east is a fact. The fact that the Earth revolves around the sun was proven.

  14. Eman Alkatheery Quotations vs. Reported Speech Quotations are the exact words that a person has used to state something. They appear between quotation marks. In addition, quotations are preceded or followed by a comma.(Table 7.2., p. 299). We begin quotations with verbs such as say, tell, ask, wonder, remarked, stated, etc. Example: Susan said, “Chris is at work.” “Chris is at work,” Susan said.

  15. Eman Alkatheery Quotations vs. Reported Speech Quoting more than one sentence: “My brother is a student. He studies at KSU,” she said. “My brother is a student,” she said. “He studies at KSU.” Quoting a question or an exclamation: She asked, ”When will you be here?” ”When will you be here?”she asked. She said, “Watch out!”

  16. Eman Alkatheery Quotations vs. Reported Speech Reported speech involves paraphrasing. You tell the same ideas but with different words. There is no need for commas or quotation marks. Also, some changes are required in reported speech. (Table 7.2., p. 299). Example: Susan said that Chris was at work.* Susan said Chris was at work. * That is optional in the middle of this sentence

  17. Eman Alkatheery Changes in Verb Tense with Reported Speech If the verb in the main (independent) clause is in the past, the verb in the noun clause (dependent clause) is changed to one of the past tenses (Table 7.3., p. 299) Quoted speech reported speech “ I watch TV everyday.” She said she watched TV everyday.

  18. Eman Alkatheery Changes in Verb Tense with Reported Speech

  19. Eman Alkatheery Changes in Verb Tense with Reported Speech

  20. Eman Alkatheery Changes in Verb Tense with Reported Speech Exceptions: In reporting technical or scientific facts, the present is generally used. “The world is round” The teacher said the world is round.

  21. Eman Alkatheery Changes in Verb Tense with Reported Speech Exceptions: If the verb in the main clause is in the present or the future, the noun clause is not changed. “ I watch TV every day”. She says she watches TV every day. She hassaid that she watches TV every day. She willsay that she watches TV every day.

  22. Eman Alkatheery Changes in Modal Auxiliaries with Reported Speech In reported speech, some modal auxiliaries are changed to the past. (Table 7.4 , p. 300)

  23. Eman Alkatheery Changes in Modal Auxiliaries with Reported Speech Must: When must expresses necessity, you change it to the past. However, when it expresses probability, it does not change.

  24. Eman Alkatheery Changes in Modal Auxiliaries with Reported Speech • If the modal auxiliary is already in the past, no changes are required. Practice 2, p. 300

  25. Eman Alkatheery Changes in pronouns, adjectives, and adverbials with Reported Speech You also have to change pronouns and demonstratives in reported speech. (Table 7.5 , p. 301). “ Ineedyour help.” She said sheneededmy help. “They needmy help.” She said that they neededher help. “These pages need to be corrected.” She said that those pages needed to be corrected.

  26. Eman Alkatheery Changes in pronouns, adjectives, and adverbials with Reported Speech “I am a computer programmer in San Francisco. Igrewup in India. I helped design several web sites. My hobbies are reading and swimming.” Molly said that she was a computer designer in San Francisco, but she had grown up in India. She had helped design several web sites. She added that her hobbies were reading and swimming.

  27. Eman Alkatheery Changes in pronouns, adjectives, and adverbials with Reported Speech Time and place expressions may also change. (Table 7.5 , p. 301) “Weneed the work now.” She said that theyneeded the work then. “Wewill need the other pages tomorrow.” She added that theywould need the other pages the following day.

  28. Eman Alkatheery Changes in pronouns, adjectives, and adverbials with Reported Speech Directional and time-related verbs may also change according to when and where the reported speech occurs. (Table 7.5 , p. 301) “You should bring them here when you cometo work.” He said that I should take them there when I went to work.

  29. Eman Alkatheery Changing Commands to Reported Speech To change a direct command to a reported statement, an appropriate subject and modal must be added e.g. should. (Table 7.6, p. 301).

  30. Eman Alkatheery Changing Commands to Reported Speech Other modals can be used in reported commands depending on the strength of the command e,g. must, have to, need to, …etc. Practice 3– p. 302

  31. Eman Alkatheery Noun Clauses PART TWO: CLAUSES WITH EMBEDDED QUESTIONS (PP. 304 – 310)

  32. Clauses with Embedded Questions Information questions can be used as noun clauses. Questions words such as what, when, why, … are used to begin such clauses. The subject precedes the verb like in statements. Auxiliary verbs added to form the questions are not used in forming noun clauses. (Table 7.7 , p. 305)

  33. Eman Alkatheery Clauses with Embedded Questions

  34. Eman Alkatheery Clauses with Embedded Questions

  35. Eman Alkatheery Clauses with Embedded Questions Practice 1, p. 306

  36. Eman Alkatheery Clauses with Embedded Questions Exercise: Combine the two clauses into one sentence using a noun clause: • Where is the bank? Could you tell me • What time does the next bus come? Can you tell me • Where did Sara go last night? Do you know • Where is the nearest super market? Do you know • How do you make a noun clause? Could you explain

  37. Eman Alkatheery Clauses with Embedded Questions • Answers: • Could you tell me where the bank is? • Can you tell me what time the next bus comes? • Do you know where Sara went last night? • Do you know where the nearest super market is? • Could you explain how you make a noun clause?

  38. Eman Alkatheery Clauses with Embedded Questions P. 305 table 7.7 Why did you leave your last job? She asked me why I hadleft my last job. The tense is changed because it is a reported question and the verb of the main clause is in the past.

  39. Eman Alkatheery Clauses with if / whether Yes/no questions can be used as noun clauses. If / whether are used to begin such clauses. The subject must come before the verb. Auxiliary verbs added to form the questions are not used in forming noun clauses.

  40. Eman Alkatheery Clauses with if / whether • If is used in both conversational and formal English. It implies that there is a yes/no answer. • Whetheris used in formal English. It implies choice among alternatives. (Table 7.8 , p. 306)

  41. Eman Alkatheery Clauses with if / whether *It is a reported question. The tense is changed to the past

  42. Eman Alkatheery Clauses with if / whether Practice 2, p. 307

  43. Eman Alkatheery Noun Clauses PART THREE: STATEMENTS AND REQUESTS OF URGENCY (PP. 311– 316)

  44. Eman Alkatheery Statement of urgency with that The subjunctive mood is used to replace commands.It is softer and less direct. The subjunctive form is the simple form of the verb, and modals are not used. (Table 7.9. , p. 312)

  45. Eman Alkatheery Statement of urgency with that You put that, the subject, and the subjunctive after these adjectives (adjectives of urgency): Advisable Imperative Important Vital Best Urgent Crucial Necessary Desirable Essential If the statement is negative, the word (not) comes before the verb

  46. Eman Alkatheery Statement of urgency with that Practice 1, p. 312

  47. Eman Alkatheery Statement of urgency with that • Compare: • It is predictablethat Noura will come late. • It is obviousthat Ali needs a job. • It is urgentthat Ali get a job. • It is importantthat Ahmad study for the exam.

  48. Eman Alkatheery Statement of urgency with that • Exercise: • Change the following commands into statements of urgency by using the given adjectives. • Crucial, important, urgent • “Study for the exam, Ahmad.” • “Arrange the files alphabetically.” • “Wash your car.”

  49. Eman Alkatheery Urgent Requests with that The subjunctive is also used with noun clauses with that after certain verbs of requests. This form of request is formal and polite. The subjunctive form is the simple form of the verb, and modals are not used.

  50. Eman Alkatheery Urgent Requests with that You put that, the subject, and the subjunctive after these verbs: (Table 7.10. , p. 313) Advise* ask* command* require* desire propose recommend suggest request urge* demand insist *They can be followed by both subjunctives and infinitives.