WHO WHOM WHENWHICH HOW WHEREIF WHY THAT WHAT WHETHER WHOEVER WHEREVERWHICHEVER HOWEVERWHOMEVER WHATEVERWHENEVER
You can recognize a noun clause by one of the relative pronouns or adverbs that begin the clause
A noun clause consists of three components: • A relative pronoun or adverb • A subject • A verb
Noun clauses function like nouns.They can be:subjectsubject complementobjectobject of prepositions
Uses of Noun Clauses • After some verbs and adjectives • To include a question in a statement (embedded questions) • To report what someone has said or asked
Noun clauses can follow certain verbs and adjectives that express mental activities • Agree notice afraid positive • Believe realize angry sorry • Decide remember aware surprised • Doubt see certain sure • Feel show clear worried • Forget suppose convinced • Guess think disappointed • Hear understand glad • Hope wonder happy • Imagine say pleased • Know tell sad
To include a question in a statement I don’t know what time it is. I wonder how he found out.
To report what someone has said or asked He said that he would return. He asked me what I wanted
There are three types of Noun Clauses:noun clauses with thatnoun clauses with WH-wordnoun clauses with if and whether
Noun clauses with THAT can be used with all verbs mentioned except wonderI think that this book will be interesting.The word that can often be omitted. However it can not be omitted if it is in the subject position
The fact that is used as the object of the prepositionWe are curious about the fact that she is here today.
Noun clauses with Wh-wordsThey have statement word order, even when they occur within questionsWh + subject + verbI don’t know what he is doingI wonder how he feels today.Where I put my book is a mystery.
In conversation, noun clauses can be replaced by so afterthinkhopebelievesupposeexpectknow
Noun clauses with If/whetherare often followed by or not. They are often used in statements that express uncertainty
Noun clauses after verbs that show importance or urgency:advise forbid recommendask insist requirebeg order suggesturge request demand
Some expressions that show importance or urgency:It is advisableIt is essentialIt is imperativeIt is importantIt is necessaryIt is urgent
After verbs that show importance or urgency,the base form is used.Use the subject pronoun before a base form.For negatives, put not before the base form
It is essential that babies have stimulation.I advise that she stay home with her children.
Direct speech Simple present ---------- Present progressive----------- Simple past--------------------- Present perfect----------------- Indirect speech Simple past Past progressive Past perfect Past perfect Direct (quoted) Speech vsIndirect (reported) Speech
Direct (quoted) speech States the exact words a speaker used. In writing, use quotation marks. John said, “ I love this class.”
Indirect (reported) speech Reports what a speaker said without using the exact words. There are no quotation marks. John said that he loved this class.
The reporting verbs say and tell are usually in the simple past for both direct and indirect speech.
He said, “It’s great.”He said it was great“I’m leaving.”She said she was leaving“I made it.”He said that he had made it.He said to her, “I’ve never lied.”he told her that he had never lied
Remember to change pronouns, time and place expressions this and here in indirect speech to keep the speaker’s original meaning.Ann told Rick, “I bought this dress here.”Ann told Rick that she had bought that dress there.
He said: He told me (that)He would leave then.He was going to driveTraffic may be badshe might movehe could helpThey had to stayI must be careful “I’ll leave now.”“I’m going to drive”“Traffic may be bad”“She might move.”“He can help.”“They have to stay.”“You must be careful.”
Some Modals change formscan – couldmay –mightwill – wouldhave to, must – had tocould, might, should, would, ought to, and had better do not change form
“Are you bringing any fruit into the country?”The customs officer asked the tourists ifthey were bringing any fruit into the country.“Do you have your transcripts with you?”The registrar asked me if I had my transcripts with me.
“Can you fix my car?”I asked the mechanic if he could fix my car.“Did you see the accident?”The police officer asked me if I had seen the accident.
“What do you want to be when you grow up?”My first grade teacher asked me what I wanted to be when I grew up.
Reported commands and requestsCommands and requests are reported using infinitives, not noun clauses“Bring the book!”She told me to bring the book.