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  1. Subordination & Content Clauses Teresa Navés tnaves@ub.edu www.ub.edu/GRAL/Naveshttp://diposit.ub.edu/dspace/handle/2445/2(Search: Naves)

  2. Reference Grammars Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., & Finegan, E. (Eds.). (1999). Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. London: Longman. Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G., & Svartvik, J. (1985). A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language (2nd ed.). London and New York: Longman. Huddleston, R., & Pullum, G. K. (Eds.). (2002). The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. London: Cambridge University Press.

  3. Student’s Grammars Biber, D., S. Conrad, et al. (2002). Longman Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Harlow: Longman. Greenbaum, S., & Quirk, R. (1990). A Student's Grammar of the English Language (1st ed.). Hong Kong: Longman. Huddleston, R. and G. K. Pullum, Eds. (2005). A Student's Introduction to English Grammar. London, Cambridge University Press.

  4. Biber et al. (1999, 2002) Quirk et al. (1985) Carter & McCarthy (2006) Nominal Relative (Adj.) Adverbial Other: Comparative, etc. Huddelston & Pullum (2002, 2005) Content Relative Comparative Naves (200) Comparison grid: Subordination

  5. Naves (200) Subordination Comparison Grid

  6. Preliminary Definions of Subordination & Content Clauses • Subordination from Oxford Concise Dictionary of Linguistics • Subordination from Carter & McCarthy (2006) • Content clauses from Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar • Content clauses from Wikipedia • Content clauses from Huddleston & Pullum (2002: 950)

  7. http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?entry=t36.e3266&srn=1&ssid=956626726#FIRSTHIThttp://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?entry=t36.e3266&srn=1&ssid=956626726#FIRSTHIT

  8. http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?entry=t36.e3266&srn=1&ssid=956626726#FIRSTHIThttp://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?entry=t36.e3266&srn=1&ssid=956626726#FIRSTHIT

  9. Subordination by Carter & McCarthy (2006) Subordination 310 A subordinate clause is dependent on a main clause or dependent on another subordinate clause, and cannot in itself form a whole sentence. Subordinate clauses are typically introduced by a class of words known as subordinators ( 311 and 312 below). Subordinators indicate the semantic relationship between the subordinate clause and the clause it is dependent on. Subordinate clauses may be finite or non-finite. 297–298 for the difference between finite and non-finite clauses

  10. Content clause http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?entry=t28.e301&srn=1&ssid=240490607#FIRSTHIT

  11. ADJUNCT adjunct1. (In older usage.) Any word or words expanding the essential parts of the sentence; an optional, inessential, element in a structure.The term has been variously used for words or phrases considered to be of secondary importance, including vocatives, adjectives joined to nouns, and also some adverbs.In Jespersen's terminology it describes the functional role of a SECONDARY joined to a PRIMARY by JUNCTION. 1933b O. JESPERSEN A secondary can be joined to a primary in two essentially different ways, for which we use the terms Junction and Nexus. As separate names for the secondary in these two functions we shall use the terms Adjunct and Adnex. In this usage, the term adjunct typically applies to an adjective in attributive position (e.g. a silly person). http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?entry=t28.e301&srn=1&ssid=240490607#FIRSTHIT

  12. ADJUNCT 2. (In present-day use, more specifically.) An element functioning like an adverb, whether a single-word adverb, an adverb phrase, or an adverb clause; sometimes the same as ADVERBIAL.Adjuncts in this sense are of course usually marginal to sentence structure and therefore omissible. Thus in Sadly, my neighbour died two months ago, both sadly and two months ago could be omitted, leaving a still grammatical, meaningful sentence. http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?entry=t28.e301&srn=1&ssid=240490607#FIRSTHIT

  13. ADJUNCT 3. (In some modern grammar.) A particular subclass of adverbial, contrasted with CONJUNCT, DISJUNCT, and (optionally) SUBJUNCT.In this categorization, only adverbials functioning as an element of clause structure (represented as A) are adjuncts. By this definition, clearly is an adjunct in the first sentence below, but not in the second:He spoke clearly and to the point Clearly, I could be wrong Adverbial adjuncts of this special type often refer to place, time, or process (including manner, means, instrument, and the agentive with the passive). In general, these adjuncts come in end position, after the verb (and object, if any). But other positions are possible, and frequency adjuncts usually come in mid position (e.g. they usually come).Adjuncts are sometimes divided on more functional grounds into PREDICATION and SENTENCE adjuncts. http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?entry=t28.e301&srn=1&ssid=240490607#FIRSTHIT

  14. Content clause http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?entry=t28.e301&srn=1&ssid=240490607#FIRSTHIT

  15. Content clause http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Content_clause

  16. Content clauses • We distinguish three main classes of finite subordinate clauses: • I couldn’t find the book that I wanted (relative) • He gave me more copies that I wanted (comparative) • You know that I wanted it (content) • Content clauses can be regarded as the default category of this dimention: they lack the special properties of relative and comparative clauses, and their structure is less different from the main clauses. (…) • The term content clauses reflects this default status: it suggests that the clause is simply selected for its syntactic content. (Huddleston & Pullum, 2005, p 950)

  17. Huddleston, R. and G. K. Pullum, Eds.(2005). A Student's Introduction to English Grammar. London, Cambridge University Press.

  18. Huddeston &Pullum (2005) Chpt 10:Subordination & Content Clauses

  19. Chpt 10: Subord. & Content clauses TOC: • Subordinate clauses • Clause type in content clauses • Declarative content clauses • Interrogative content clauses • Exclamative content clauses

  20. 1. Subordinate clauses Examples from Huddleston & Pullum (2005) Chpt 10 Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

  21. 1. Subordinate clauses Examples from Huddleston & Pullum (2005) Chpt 10 Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

  22. 2. Content Clauses Examples from Huddleston & Pullum (2005) Chpt 10 Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

  23. 3. Declarative Content Clauses 3.1. Declarative content clauses 3.2. Declarative as complement 3.3. The mandative construction

  24. 3.1 Declarative Content Clauses Examples from Huddleston & Pullum (2005) Chpt 10 Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

  25. 3.2 Declaratives as complements Examples from Huddleston & Pullum (2005) Chpt 10 Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

  26. 3.3 The mandative contruction Examples from Huddleston & Pullum (2005) Chpt 10 Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

  27. 4. Interrogative content clauses 4.1. Introduction: Closed Interrogatives and the subordinator whether and if and Open interrogatives 4.2. Interrogatives as Complement 4.3. Interrogatives as Adjunt

  28. 4.1. Interrogative Content Clauses Examples from Huddleston & Pullum (2005) Chpt 10 Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

  29. 4.3. Interrogative as Complement Examples from Huddleston & Pullum (2005) Chpt 10 Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

  30. 4.3. Interrogatives as Adjunct Examples from Huddleston & Pullum (2005) Chpt 10 Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

  31. 5. Exclamative Content Clauses Examples from Huddleston & Pullum (2005) Chpt 10 Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

  32. 5. Exclamatives as Complement Examples from Huddleston & Pullum (2005) Chpt 10 Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

  33. Exercises by D. Goss-Grubbs Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/ Examples from Huddleston & Pullum (2005) Chpt 10

  34. Quiz A by D. Goss-Grubbs Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

  35. Key to Quiz A by D. Goss-Grubbs Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

  36. Quiz B by D. Goss-Grubbs Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

  37. Key to Quiz B by D.Goss-Grubbs Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

  38. Quiz C by D. Goss-Grubbs Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

  39. Key to Quiz C by D. Goss-Grubbs Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

  40. Task 1 by T. Navés Analyse the following subordinate clauses following • Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) as declarative content, open or closed interrogative content, exclamative content, relatives or comparatives. • Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006), as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others. 1. He says that Liz is in Paris. 2. I wonder whether she is ill. 3. Tell me what you want. 4. Tell her what a bargain it is.

  41. Key to Task 1 by T. Navés Analyse the following subordinate clauses following • Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) as declarative content, open or closed interrogative content, exclamative content, relatives or comparatives. • Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others. 1. He says that Liz is in Paris. (a) Declarative content // (b) Nominal 2. I wonder whether she is ill. (a) Closed interrogative content. // (b) Conditional 3. Tell me what you want. (a) Open interrogative content // (b) Nom-Rel. 4. Tell her what a bargain it is. (a) Exclamative content // (b)Nom-Rel.

  42. Task 2 by T. Navés Analyse the following subordinate clauses following • Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) as declarative content, open or closed interrogative content, exclamative content, relatives or comparatives. • Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others. 5. They weren’t among the people who had been invited 6.More people came than had been invited 7. I don’t think that these people had been invited

  43. Key to Task 2 by T. Navés Analyse the following subordinate clauses following • Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) as declarative content, open or closed interrogative content, exclamative content, relatives or comparatives. • Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others. 5. They weren’t among the people who had been invited (a) Relative // (b) Relative) 6.More people came than had been invited (a) Comparative // (b) Comparative) 7. I don’t think that these people had been invited (a) Declarative content // (b) Nominal)

  44. Task 3 by T. Navés Analyse the following content subordinate clauses • Following Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) say whether the ‘that’ is obligatory, inadmissible or optional • Classify them according to Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others and identify their function 8. That I need help is clear 9.I left before the arrived 10. I know that it’s genuine

  45. Key to Task 3 by T. Navés Analyse the following content subordinate clauses • Following Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) say whether the ‘that’ is obligatory, inadmissible or optional • Classify them according to Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others and identify their function 8. That I need help is clear (a) Content with obligatory ‘that’ // (b) Nominal (Sbj) 9.I left before the arrived (a) Content with inadmissible ‘that’ // (b) Adverbial 10. I know that it’s genuine (a) Content with optional ‘that’ // (b) Nominal (DO)

  46. Task 4 by T. Navés Analyse the following content subordinate clauses • Following Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) as declarative content, open or closed interrogative content, exclamative content, relatives or comparatives; say whether the ‘that’ is obligatory, inadmissible or optional and identify their function • Classify them according to Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others and identify their function 11. That they refused didn’t surprise us 12.It didn’t surprise us that they refused 13. She informed us that they had been insulted

  47. Key to Task 4 by T. Navés Analyse the following content subordinate clauses • Following Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) as declarative content, open or closed interrogative content, exclamative content, relatives or comparatives; say whether the ‘that’ is obligatory, inadmissible or optional and identify their function • Classify them according to Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others and identify their function 11. That they refused didn’t surprise us • Declarative content with obligatory ‘that’ functioning as Subj // • Nominal (Subj) 12.It didn’t surprise us that they refused • Declarative content with optional ‘that’ functioning as Extraposed Subj // • Nominal (IO) 13. She informed us that they had been insulted • Declarative content with optional ‘that’ functioning as Internal complmt. of the V • Nominal (IO)

  48. Task 5 by T. Navés Analyse the following content subordinate clauses • Following Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) as declarative content, open or closed interrogative content, exclamative content, relatives or comparatives; say whether the ‘that’ is obligatory, inadmissible or optional and identify their function • Classify them according to Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others and identify their function 14. I realise that you feel insulted 15.The problem is that we just can’t afford it 16. Your can’t ingnore the fact that he was drunk

  49. Key to Task 5 by T. Navés Analyse the following content subordinate clauses • Following Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) as declarative content, open or closed interrogative content, exclamative content, relatives or comparatives; say whether the ‘that’ is obligatory, inadmissible or optional and identify their function • Classify them according to Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others and identify their function 14. I realise that you feel insulted • Declarative content with optional ‘that’ functioning as as Internal complmt. of the V • Nominal (Object Complement) 15.The problem is that we just can’t afford it • Declarative content with optional ‘that’ functioning as Internal complmt. of the V • Nominal (Subject Complement) 16. Your can’t ingnore the fact that he was drunk • Declarative content with optional ‘that’ functioning as complement of noun • Nominal (Complement of the HNP)

  50. Task 6 by T. Navés Analyse the following content subordinate clauses • Following Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) as declarative content, open or closed interrogative content, exclamative content, relatives or comparatives; say whether the ‘that’ is obligatory, inadmissible or optional and identify their function • Classify them according to Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others and identify their function 17. I’m glad that you could come 18.You can go provided that your are carefull 19. Your can’t ingnore the fact that he was drunk