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Megan Ranjeev Reymund David Sharon . French and English Relations 1980’s 1990’s. 1980 Referendum and Quebec Sovereignty . Rene Levesque/Parti Québécois wanted Sovereignty by Association

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1980 referendum and quebec sovereignty
1980 Referendum and Quebec Sovereignty
  • Rene Levesque/Parti Québécois wanted Sovereignty by Association
                • Quebec would be politically separate, but still have economic ties to Canada (still have free trade, tariffs, and currency)
  • Referendum held to vote on the issue of greater independence
  • Result = 40% of Québec voted yes for Sov. by Asso. (SBA)
patriating the constitution
Patriating the Constitution
  • This meant that Canada wanted to gain control of the Constitution back from Britain.
  • Canada couldn’t make changes if it was still in Britain unless we gained permission.
amending formula and why
Amending Formula and Why?
  • An amending formula is a set of rules that guide the process of changing the Constitution.
  • Was an crucial step that Trudeau had to take to be able to create a standardized way of making changes to the Canadian Constitution.
  • In Canada, 7 out of 10 provinces, equaling at least 50% of the population, have to agree to a constitutional change.
two components
Two Components
  • Drafted by Trudeau,was the BNA act and the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
kitchen compromise
Kitchen Compromise

  • The Prime Minister went in the kitchen of the National Conference Center to chat about the amending formula. This night created the notwithstanding clause.
  • Premier Levesque felt betrayed because he felt that everyone ganged up and denied Québec of its own distinctstatus.
notwithstanding clause
Notwithstanding Clause
  • The Notwithstanding Clause is a provision in the Constitution that allows provinces to passlaws, even if it goes against the Constitution.
constitution debate fix the mistake
Constitution Debate / Fix the Mistake
  • The Supreme Court ruled that in order for Québecto separate, it would have to have a clear majority making it almost impossible for them to separate.
  • PM Mulroney wanted to make up for the mistakes of the Constitution of 1982.

“I’ll fix this!”

meech lake accord
Meech Lake Accord
  • Change in the constitution offered Québeca “distinct society”. It would create “two solutions” in Canada isolating the Francophonesof Quebec.
  • Large oppositionby the Parti Quebecois
  • Trudeau believed it would divide Canada
  • Quebec could overrule the constitution and rob certain groups in Canada of rights
elijah harper charlotte town accord meech lake contin
Elijah Harper / Charlotte Town Accord/ Meech Lake Contin.
  • Elijah Harper is aCree member of the Manitoba legislature, opposed the Meech Lake Accord because it did not recognizeCanada’s Aboriginal nation as a distinct society
  • CTA proposed aboriginal self government; failed because BC felt it gaveQuébec too much power and they objected to the guarantee that Québec would always have 25% of the seats in the House of Commons regardless of the size of its population.


lucien bouchard
Lucien Bouchard
  • Lucien Bouchard became the Québecpremier in 1996, he talked periodically of a new referendum.
  • Made the Bloc Québécois to dedicate and be committed to Québec’s separation from Canada after the failure of Meech Lake
  • It was a federal party targeted towards Québec

“Pour un Québec lucide"

1995 referendum
1995 Referendum
  • According to the 1995 referendum, 49.4% of the Québécois voted for sovereignty
1998 supreme court
1998 Supreme Court
  • The Supreme Court ruled that Québec did not have the right to separate completely – it would have to negotiate with the federal government, and the 9 other provinces, the Aboriginal nations living in Québec, and the other minorities
clarity act of 1999
Clarity Act of 1999
  • The Clarity Act of 1999 decreed that a futureQuébecreferendum needed to have a clearly-worded question and a clear majority, if the topic of the referendum would be passed into law.