The French Revolution Liberty Leading The People by Delacroix
The French Revolution In The Beginning... 1789-1792
It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity… -- Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities
French Revolution Trouble is brewing in France • Why it matters: • The French Revolution became the model for revolution in the modern world. • The power of nationalism was first • experienced during the French Revolution • and it is still powerful in existing nations and emerging nations today. • The French Revolution spread the principles of liberty and equality, which are held dear by many nations and individuals today.
student outline • Rule of kings until 1789 • Estates general called in 1789 • Fall of Bastille July 1789 • New Constitution 1789-1791 • Republic 1792 • Extremists in power 1793 • Reign of Terror 1793-1794 • The Directory 1795 • Napoleon First Consul 1799 The French Revolution of 1789
The Rulers of France Louis XVI Marie Antionette Let them eat cake
Queen Marie Antoinette: Love Her or Hate Her • When she was 14 years old, her mother sent her to Paris to marry the Dauphin and become France's future Queen. Maria Teresa thought her a silly girl ("Her age craves indulgence," she wrote father-in-law Louis XV)--and only sent her when her other daughters defaulted and she had no other choice (beautiful Marie Elizabeth, for example, contracted small pox and became too ugly to qualify). Indeed, Marie Antoinette had been a lousy student, didn't like to read, and could barely write. • Her 15-year-old husband, the future Louis XVI, was a shy, gawky boy who most loved hunting, reading history, and working in his little locksmith shop. Whereas womanizing Louis XV immediately examined his daughter-in-law's breasts (and was disappointed--she was, after all, only 14), the future Louis XVI was not able to complete the sex act with his bride for a whole 7 years and 3 months after the wedding.
For 7 years and 3 months, then, Marie Antoinette filled her life with other gay pursuits--dancing, music, gambling; theatricals, buying things, gambling; riding horses, frisking with dogs, gambling--and she shocked the pants off France when she made an outing with courtiers and her household one morning to watch daybreak--the so-called l'lever d'Aurore. Positively Rousseau-esque! Decadent and unqueenly! It prompted the first of thousands of vitriolic pamphlets written against her specifically. In 1774, Louis XV died, and King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette ascended to the throne.
Queen Marie Antoinette: Love Her or Hate Her • Finally in 1778, thanks to the intervention in 1777 of Marie Antoinette's brother Joseph (the future Holy Roman Emperor) in the role of sex therapist, the King and Queen delivered a healthy baby girl...followed by a son in 1781, the coveted Dauphin and future King...another son in 1785...and daughter Sophie in 1786. These were the Queen's happiest years--so fulfilled as a mother, by her own account, that she packed on weight and mostly gave up her antic behavior. But sad days followed fast: Sophie died in 1787. The Dauphin, always a sickly boy, became hideously diseased, crippled, and feverish as he slipped into advanced tuberculosis. And, with the treasury empty, bread riots everywhere, and the fear of war rampant, the Queen got the blame.
The Necklace Scandal 1,600,000 livres[$100 million today] • Cardinal Louis René Édouard de Rohan • The Countess de LaMotte
Let Them Eat Cake! • Marie Antoinette NEVER said that! • “Madame Deficit” • “The Austrian Whore”
Queen Marie Antoinette: Love Her or Hate Her What will happen to her next? Wait and see….
Financial Problemsin France, 1789 • Urban Commoner’sBudget: • Food 80% • Rent 25% • Tithe 10% • Taxes 35% • Clothing 20% • TOTAL 170% • King’s Budget: • Interest 50% • Army 25% • Versailles 25% • Coronation 10% • Loans 25% • Admin. 25% • TOTAL 160%
The Three Estates The Estates General is the French body of lawmaking Nobility Bourgeoisie Commoners Peasants Clergy
The Three Estates First and Second Estates First Estate: Clergy (1% population) -control lots of land -operated the schools -aided the poor -lived in great luxury – chateaux -doesn’t have to pay tax (taille) to King (common people pay tax to King and tithe to church) Second Estate: nobles -Nobles had almost complete authority over peasants -Nobles did not have to do military service -Nobles were exempt from most taxes -Nobles collected tolls from people using roads and markets -
The Three Estates The Third Estate • Workers (sans culottes) • Bourgeoisie (businessmen) • Peasants were forced to do military service • Peasants could not hunt or fish on noble’s estates • -Peasants had to pay taxes to their lord, the king, and • the Church • -Peasants had to use the lord’s mill, oven and • winepress, and pay for them • - Peasants made up 90% of the population
The Number of Representativesin the Estates General: Vote by Head! Clergy 1st Estate 300 Aristocracy 2nd Estate 300 648 Commoners 3rd Estate
Convening the Estates General May, 1789 Last time it was called into session was 1614!
The causes of the French Revolution This cartoon was produced in the 1780s and is a comment on the social situation in France at that time. It can be used to help explain the causes of the French Revolution of 1789. You have two tasks for this piece of homework. You should use your knowledge and evidence from your lessons on the causes of the French Revolution to help you complete the tasks. Label the three figures in the cartoon by writing in the spaces provided: Peasant Priest Noble ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Use your own knowledge to explain how the cartoon can be used to describe the causes of the French Revolution.
King Louis XVI and Marie Antionette ran out of money. He spent lots of money on two wars against Britain. One in 1756 (French and Indian War or the 7 Years War) One in 1778 (American Revolution against Britain) Four Causes of the 1789 French Revolution
2. Problems faced by peasants. They were so poor they couldn’t feed their families. Then there were 2 years of bad harvest. Four Causes of the 1789 French Revolution
3. Clergy and Nobles would not give the king more money. Clergy and nobles had lots of land and money but would not pay more taxes. Four Causes of the 1789 French Revolution
4. Final cause of the French Revolution was ideas. A new set of ideas called the Enlightenment attacked the power of the king and the church. These made lots of ordinary French people think that they should have some of the power of the gov’t. Four Causes of the 1789 French Revolution
The causes of the French Revolution There was a revolution in _ _ _ _ _ _ in 1789. The ruler of France before the Revolution was King _ _ _ _ _ XVI. His wife was Queen _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ King Louis XVI lived in his palace at _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ near Paris. One of the reasons why there was a revolution in France in 1789 is that the king ran out of _ _ _ _ _. He spent lots of money on two wars with _ _ _ _ _ _ One was in 1756 and another one was in 1778. In the second war the French were helping the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ break away from British control. Another cause of the French Revolution was the problems faced by the _ _ _ They were so poor that they did not have enough money to feed their families. This was made worse when the crops failed to grow. The _ _ _ _ _ _ _ failed in 1787 and 1788. Another cause of the French Revolution was that the two _ _ _ _ __groups in France would not give the king more money. The _ _ _ _ _ and the _ _ _ _ _ had lots of land and money but would not pay more _ _ _ _ _. This left the king unable to find more money. A final reason why the French had a revolution in 1789 was ideas. A new set of ideas called the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ attacked the power of the king and the church. These made lots of ordinary French people think that they should have some of the power of the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. I am King Louis XVI. I have run out of money fighting the British. Perhaps the lords and the church could give me some more taxes? I am a peasant. I have nothing. When the crops fail to grow the prices rise and I starve. I am a lord. I have lots of money and do not want to pay any extra taxes to the king! I am a bishop of the church. I have lots of money but I do not want to givethe king any extra taxes either!
“The Third Estate Awakens” • The commoners finally presented their credentials not as delegates of the Third Estate, but as “representatives of the nation.” • They proclaimed themselves the “National Assembly” of France.
“The Tennis Court Oath”by Jacques Louis David June 20, 1789
link You tell me who said what: worksheet
What happened after the Tennis Court oath? June 20, 1789 The National Assembly ruled and created documents and new decrees (laws)
Storming the Bastille, July 14, 1789 • A rumor that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly. • 18 died. • 73 wounded. • 7 guards killed. • It held 7 prisoners [5 ordinary criminals & 2 madmen].
The Great Fear: Peasant Revolt(July 20, 1789) • There was chaos and fear everywhere as the National Assembly took over • Rumors that the feudal aristocracy [the aristos] were sending hired brigands to attack peasants and pillage their land.
The Path of the “Great Fear” Why did the Great Fear occur? ____Peasants believed nobles were planning to kill them and stop revolution. Many food shortages, so people hungry and angry______ What was the Great Fear? ____Peasants attacked manor houses and monasteries. Destroyed possessions and documents recording rents, feudal dues and other feudal obligations
The Creation of the National Assembly and the new Constitution
National Constituent Assembly1789 - 1791 Egalité! Liberté! Fraternité! During that August there were decrees (laws) passed that ended the privileges of the rich aristocracy
1789 The National Assembly continued to meet. • 3 reforms of the National Assembly which occurred in August, 1789? (August Decrees) • a. Outlawed the 10% tithe to Catholic Church • b. Canceled all feudal dues and services from peasants to nobility • c. Removed privileges of First and Second Estates, therefore outlawed Feudalism in France_ Equality & Meritocracy!
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (Aug 26, 1789) • 5 rights stated in the Declaration of the Rights of Man. • a. men are born and remain equal before the law • b. Freedom of speech, press, and religion • c. Right to take part in government • d. Right to hold public office • e. Right to a fair trial
Olympe de Gouges (1745-1793) • Women played a vital role in the Revolution. • But, The Declaration of the Rights of Man did NOT extend the rights and protections of citizenship to women. Declaration of the Rights of Womanand of the Citizen (1791)