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The English of minorities in the USA and dialect groups PowerPoint Presentation
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The English of minorities in the USA and dialect groups

The English of minorities in the USA and dialect groups

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The English of minorities in the USA and dialect groups

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  1. English in the US and Canada The English of minorities in the USA and dialect groups Prof. R. Hickey

  2. English in the US and Canada Syllabus • Chicano English • Jewish English • Native American English • Appalachian English • Ocracoke English • Dialects of the Mid-West Prof. R. Hickey

  3. English in the US and Canada Chicano English Presenters: Arianne Mansiamina, Huong Pham, Tina Pham, Dirk van der Smissen Prof. R. Hickey

  4. English in the US and Canada Table of Contents • What does Chicano mean? • Historical Aspects • Chicano Dialect • Sources and Literature Chicano English

  5. English in the US and Canada 1. What does Chicano mean? • Chicano is a cultural identity used by people of Mexican descent in the USA • Refers to a second- or third-generation Mexican American, who have a community on their own in the US. • No clear etymology of the term Chicano. • Might be a contraction of Mexicano. Chicano English

  6. English in the US and Canada 2. Historical aspects • History of Mexican-Americans is about 400 years of moving from region to region • Once they lived in those states which formerly belonged to Mexico: California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and Texas Chicano English

  7. English in the US and Canada Chicano English

  8. English in the US and Canada • Nowadays these regions are part of the U.S., because of the Mexican-American war • The Mexican-American war was from 1846 to 1848. • After the war, Mexico sold some Mexican territories to the U.S. • California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and Texas became part of the U.S. Chicano English

  9. English in the US and Canada • Mexican Americans began to create communities in Chicago and other steel producing region during World War I. • Large Mexican immigration in the US after the Mexican Revolution in 1910 Chicano English

  10. English in the US and Canada • Many of them live now in the area of Los Angeles • The Hispanic population in L.A. is about 40% of the whole population Chicano English

  11. English in the US and Canada Chicano English

  12. English in the US and Canada 3. Chicano Dialect 1. Multiple negation: speech feature which is prominent in Black English as well as Chicano English “My four years I spend there I did not learn nothing” 2. Non-Standard verb forms: use of past participle forms instead of simple past verb forms: “I seen almost all his movies” for “I saw” Chicano English

  13. English in the US and Canada 3. Embedded question inversion: “I ask myself what would I do without a friend” for “what I would do” 4. Differing use of the comparative: In Chicano speech “more” is used instead of “more often”: “They use more Spanish” for “They use Spanish more often” 5. Lexical Pairs of Chicano English: • I an a, thing and think, will and would and want and won’t are homophonous in Chicano English Chicano English

  14. English in the US and Canada Examples: “They made I lot of parties” for “..a lot of parties” “My parents gave me a moral and education, and I know that doing this a would hurt my parents” for“…I would hurt my parents” Chicano English

  15. English in the US and Canada Any questions? Chicano English

  16. English in the US and Canada 4. Sources & Literature Chicano English

  17. English in the US and Canada Thanks for your attention!! Chicano English

  18. English in the US and Canada Jewish English Producers: Anastasia Nikolaeva (HS/TN), Frauke Skrobaschewsky (HS/LN), Katharina Zill (HS/LN) Prof. R. Hickey

  19. English in the US and Canada Table of contents 1. History 2. Today in the United States 3. Grammar and Vocabulary 4. Conclusion 5. Sources and Literature Jewish English

  20. English in the US and Canada 1. History • 19th century: large group of Jews emigrated to the United States  2.5 Million between 1877 and 1917 • in 1870 the Jewish population was about 250.000 • the language they brought with them was Yiddish  developed among German speaking Jews in the middle ages Jewish English

  21. English in the US and Canada 2. Today in the United States • hundreds of thousands of Jews speak Jewish varieties of English • influences of Yiddish, textual Hebrew and modern Hebrew • 2 different types: 1) general English with an addition of just a few Hebrew or Yiddish words (e.g. Hanukah), 2) multiple influences from Yiddish in syntax, lexicon and phonology Jewish English

  22. English in the US and Canada • Orthodox Jewish English includes hundreds of loan words from Hebrew and Yiddish  to express the elements that characterize traditional Jewish life e.g. “mame“ = mother “rebe“ = teacher Jewish English

  23. English in the US and Canada 3. Grammar and vocabulary • in general, the grammar of Jewish English is English grammar • English is used to set the sentence structure; Yiddish, Hebrew or Aramaic words are used to fill in the blanks  “We must practice Ahavoh not Sinoh; We must build Yiddishkeit, not destroy it“ (Ahavoh = love, Sinoh = hate, Yiddishkeit = Judaism) Jewish English

  24. English in the US and Canada • words of non-English origin being given plurals and verb tenses inconsistent with their language of origin  “Yeshiva” becomes “Yeshivas”, not “Yeshivot” • some verbs (especially Hebrew) are often treated as participles and inflected by English auxiliary verbs  “He was moide that he was wrong” = He admitted that he was wrong Jewish English

  25. English in the US and Canada • loanwords are replaced by the Yiddish diminutive –ie or –y  “kepele” (= small head) changes into “keppy” • it is common in Ashkenazie English to attach English suffixes to Yiddish words  “Yeke” or “Yeki” (= German Jew) changes into the adjective “Yekish” and the noun “Yekishness” Jewish English

  26. English in the US and Canada • set phrases transferred from Yiddish with “make” and “say”: “make shabes” = prepare for the Sabbath, “say kaddish” = recite regularly the mourner’s prayer • Jewish English vocabulary is primarily drawn from English but also includesterms from Hebrew, Yiddish and Aramaic. • Example: the preposition ‘by’ can be used in JE as in “I ate by my brother last night.” Jewish English

  27. English in the US and Canada 4. Conclusion • Jewish English is considered as the most widespread Jewish language of today. • Question: Is it a JL in the same sense as Tsarfatic (“Judeo-French), Italkic (“Judeo-Italian“) and Yavanic (“Judeo-Greek“)? • Needs more time to develop itself into an own language. Jewish English

  28. English in the US and Canada 5. Sources & Literature Jewish English

  29. English in the US and Canada Native American English Presenters: Nils Jäkel, Frauke Knop, Thomas Leukel, Kathrin Nellessen, Markus Stein Prof. R. Hickey

  30. English in the US and Canada Table of Contents 1. Cultural Areas 2.1 Indigenous Language Families 2.2 Navajo Example • Phonologic Features and Grammar • Language Influences • Sources and Literature Native American English

  31. English in the US and Canada Culture and Language • Differentiation between language and culture areas necessary • Cultural areas represent the environment and special American Indian life-style • Language areas only partly correspond to the cultural regions language contact and language influence Native American English

  32. English in the US and Canada 1. Cultural Areas 1. New South West 2. The Eastern Timberland 3. The South-East 4. The Plains 5. California and the Great Basin 6. The Plateau-Region 7. The Subarctic 8. The North-West Coast 9. The Arctic Native American English

  33. English in the US and Canada New Southwest • situated in Arizona, New Mexico and Southern Colorado + Sonora, Chilhuahua (Mexico) • tribes: Pueblo, Navajo, Havasupai, Mojave Native American English

  34. English in the US and Canada New Southwest • special features: hunting, collected plants, lived in storeyed stone or houses built with clay, but also in smaller villages near their fields (summer), trade with other tribes, irrigation plant Native American English

  35. English in the US and Canada Eastern Woodland • tribes: Iroquois, Delaware, Shawnee, Potawatomi, Menominee, Illinois • special features: hunting, agriculture, fishing Native American English

  36. English in the US and Canada The South-East • North of the Golf of Mexico and South of the American middle-atlantic states • extends from Atlantic Coast to Central Texas • Tribes: Cherokee, Choctaw, Chicasaw, Creek, Seminoles • special features: founding of towns and public places, mechanic commerce Native American English

  37. English in the US and Canada The Great Plains • extends from the steppe-areas of Central-Canada to Mexico and from the Middle-West to the Rocky Mountains • Tribes: Blackfoot, Mandan, Hidatsa, Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Shoshone, Comanche • special features: typical feather-woven cloaks, tipi (Sioux name for house), sacred pipe, costumes and dances Native American English

  38. English in the US and Canada California and the Great Basin • situated in the mountain ranges and valleys of Utah, Nevada and California • Tribes: Paiute, Ute, Shoshone, Klamath, Modoc, Maidu, Pomo, Miwok, Wintun • special features: thatched houses, trade (basketwork, fishing-trade, shell-money Native American English

  39. English in the US and Canada Plateau-Region • Tribes: Nez Perce, Walla Walla, Yakima, Umatilla, Flathead, Spokane, Okanagon, Cayuse, Kootenai • situated in the evergreen woods and mountain-ranges of Idaho, Eastern Oregon and Washington as well as Western Montana and Canada • special features: fishing-trade, living in villages with houses (winter) and in cottages being covered with mats (summer) Native American English

  40. English in the US and Canada The Sub-Arctic region • encloses the largest part of Canada and reaches from the Atlantic Ocean to the mountain-ranges at the Pacific as well as from the tundra-region down to 300 miles away from the American-Canadian border • tribes: Cree, Ojibwa, Montagnais, Chippewa, Kutchin, • special features: no agriculture, hunting, fishing Native American English

  41. English in the US and Canada The North-West Coast • encloses the West Coast of North-America and reaches from Southern Alaska to Northern Califonia • tribes: Tlingit, Nootka, Chinook, Salish, Makah, • special featueres: rich food supply  high populousness, living in big villages with huge framehouses, families had slaves, trade with North Asia, famous with wood carvings Native American English

  42. English in the US and Canada The Arctic region • Tribes: Eskimo • special features: no agriculture, fishing, whaling, living in tents (summer) and insulated soil-houses (winter) • houses made of blocks of ice (Canada), low population Native American English

  43. English in the US and Canada Native American English

  44. English in the US and Canada 2.1 Indigenous Language Families • 363,995* speakers of Native American languages • In total there were 296 native American languages, of which 269 are grouped in 27 language families (the other languages are isolated or unclassified) • Less than half of them are still used today • Many languages have only a few speakers left (*Source: Adapted from B. Grimes (1996). Ethnologue: Languages of the world. Dallas: SIL International. Updated February 1999 at www.sil.org/ethnologue) Native American English

  45. English in the US and Canada 2.1 Indigenous Language Families • Uto-Aztecan (~1,95 million) • Oregon, Idaho, Utah, California, Nevada, Arizona • Today mostly in Mexico • Hopi (5,264 Arizona, Utah, New Mexico) • Tubatulabal (6 California) • Numic (subfamily) • Comanche (864 Oklahoma) • Shoshoni (2,284 Nevada, Idaho, Wyoming) Native American English

  46. English in the US and Canada 2.1 Indigenous Language Families • Nadene (180,200) • Arizona, New Mexico (mostly Navajo) • Navajo (148,530) • Dene (4000 Canada, Alaska) • Eyak (one survivor) Native American English

  47. English in the US and Canada 2.1 Indigenous Language Families • Algic (?) • From the Rocky Mountains to New England • Algonquian (subfamily) • Cheyenne (1,721 Montana) • Blackfoot (1,062 Montana • Arapaho (1,038 Wyoming, Oklahoma) • Yurok (10 California) • Extinct • Wiyot Native American English

  48. English in the US and Canada 2.2 Navajo Example My name is Regina. I am 22 years old and am a student at the Navajo Community College. My clans are the Yucca Fruit Clan. My maternal clan is Under-His-Cover Clan, my paternal clan is Red-Streaking-Into-The-Water-Clan. I am originally from the town of Rock Point. I am presently studying three majors. To me, what's important in Navajo culture is my being Navajo. I am very proud to be an Indian and a Navajo. I believe we are special because we are a 'one of a kind' tribe, just like every other tribe. We have our clan systems. We also have our four worlds to support us. We know who we are today and who we want to become in the future. We know our roots - who our grandfathers and grandmothers were. They have gone through a lot of trouble for us, such as the Long Walk and the many other hardships they have faced. (…) Native American English

  49. English in the US and Canada 2.2 Navajo Example (…) I really like being Navajo because of who they made me. Through the clans I am who I am today through the lives of my mother and my father, my forefathers and my grandmothers and grandfathers. If it wasn't for them I wouldn't be here right now.I want to be there for somebody in my future. I am responsible for my own future. The Navajo people have a unique outline for life. It starts with the thinking process to the east, the planning process to the south, the living, action process to the west and the satisfaction and evaluation process which is to the north. Everything we do is clockwise. We don't go backwards. The four sacred mountains we live between are very sacred to us. Native American English

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