Persian Wars Cause of wars: Athenian support of Greek colonies in Persia Battle of Marathon: 490 BCE Won by Athens’ phalanx, a 10 to 1 victory Role of Pheidippides – ran 26 miles (from Marathon) to tell city of the victory, then died.
480 BCE – Second Invasion • Battle of Thermopylae • Spartans and Athenians can’t stop Persians • Historic last stand by Leonidas and 300 Spartans • Athens burned
Thermopylae was the scene of the heroic death of Leonidas I and his 1400 men, 300 Spartans. In their attempt to stop the Persian invasion in 480 BCE. The Greeks were betrayed by a spy who told the Persians about a path over the mountain, attacked the Greeks from the rear, and killed all the Spartans. The Battle of Thermopylae was recorded by the Greek historian Herodotus.
Battle of Salamis • Athens navy vs. Persian navy • Persians drawn into the straits near Salamis • Persians: More ships, but bigger ships trapped in the little straits • Athens Wins; Persians go home
GOLDEN AGE OF GREECE 479 – 431BCE Height of Greek culture and development Pericles and the Delian League For over 20 years, at Athens' height, the city was dominated by the aloof, 'Olympian' figure of Pericles. A magnificent orator with a reputation for scrupulous honesty, Pericles deepened and extended the reforms that Cleisthenes had set in motion some 50 years before. A keen patron of learning and the arts, he masterminded the construction of the Parthenon. However, in glorifying Athens, he set it upon a collision course with Sparta that would Ultimately lead to its ruin. Pericles
Pericles as Leader • creates direct democracy • Takes over Delian League; uses money to strengthen Athenian fleet beautify Athens • Pericles builds the Parthenon • Classical art—values harmony, order, balance, proportion, beauty