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Chapter 7
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  1. Chapter 7 Mood Disorders Dr. Ashlea Smith Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, Fifth Edition – Chapter 7

  2. Agenda • Finish MBPS/Serial Killers • 2 activities related to Munchausen/Malingering • Discuss change in test date Ch 4-7. • Test review questions Turning Points software • Mood disorders • Mood disorders activity • Handouts (blue and pink on Bipolar) • Case Study example • Study guide

  3. Pretend for a Moment…… • Pretend you are a business owner who is interested in alleviating the negative (costly) effects of depression on workplace productivity. Come up with creative and practical solutions to identifying and intervening with workers suffering from mood disorders. (Similar roles you could pretend to be: High school principal, a medical doctor, a fraternity or sorority president, college instructor, sports team manager, etc.

  4. Mood Disorders • Two key emotions on a continuum: • Depression • Low, sad state in which life seems dark and overwhelming • Mania • State of breathless euphoria or frenzied energy Depression Mania

  5. Unipolar Depression • How Common Is Unipolar Depression? • What Are the Symptoms of Depression? • Diagnosing Unipolar Depression • Stress and Unipolar Depression Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, Fifth Edition – Chapter 7

  6. How Common Is Unipolar Depression? • About 7% of the U.S. population experiences severe unipolar depression in any given year • As many as 5% experience mild depression • The prevalence is similar in Canada, England, France, and many other countries • Approximately 17% of all adults experience unipolar depression at some time in their lives • Rates have been steadily increasing since 1915

  7. How Common Is Unipolar Depression? • In almost all countries, women are twice as likely as men to experience severe unipolar depression • Lifetime prevalence: 26% of women vs. 12% of men • These rates hold true across socioeconomic classes and ethnic groups • Approximately 50% recover within six weeks, some without treatment • Most will experience another episode at some point

  8. Unipolar Depression • The term “depression” is often used to describe general sadness or unhappiness • This usage confuses a normal mood swing with a clinical syndrome • Clinical depression can bring severe and long-lasting psychological pain that may intensify over time

  9. What Are the Symptoms of Depression? • Symptoms may differ from person to person • Five main areas of functioning may be affected: • Emotional symptoms • Feeling “miserable,” “empty,” “humiliated” • Experiencing little pleasure • Motivational symptoms • Lacking drive, initiative, spontaneity • Between 6% and 15% of those with severe depression commit suicide

  10. What Are the Symptoms of Unipolar Depression? • Five main areas of functioning may be affected: • Behavioral symptoms • Less active, less productive • Cognitive symptoms • Hold negative views of themselves • Blame themselves for unfortunate events • Pessimism • Physical symptoms • Headaches, dizzy spells, general pain

  11. Diagnosing Unipolar Depression • Criteria 1: Major depressive episode • Marked by five or more symptoms lasting two or more weeks • In extreme cases, symptoms are psychotic, including • Hallucinations • Delusions • Criteria 2: No history of mania

  12. What Causes Unipolar Depression? • Stress may be a trigger for depression • People with depression experience a greater number of stressful life events during the month just prior to the onset of their symptoms • Some clinicians distinguish reactive (exogenous) depression from endogenous depression, which seems to be a response to internal factors • The utility of this distinction is questionable and today’s clinicians usually concentrate on recognizing the situational and the internal aspects of any given case

  13. Unipolar Depression (continued) • The Biological Model of Unipolar Depression • Psychological Models of Unipolar Depression • The Sociocultural Model of Unipolar Depression Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, Fifth Edition – Chapter 7

  14. What Causes Unipolar Depression?The Biological View • Genetic factors • Family pedigree, twin, adoption, and molecular biology gene studies suggest that some people inherit a predisposition • Researchers have found that as many as 20% of relatives of those with depression are themselves depressed, compared with fewer than 10% of the general population • Twin studies demonstrate a strong genetic component: • Rates for identical (MZ) twins = 46% • Rates for fraternal (DZ) twins = 20% • Molecular biology studies also have implicated a genetic factor in many cases of unipolar depression

  15. What Causes Unipolar Depression?The Biological View • Biochemical factors • NTs: serotonin and norepinephrine • In the 1950s, medications for high blood pressure were found to cause depression • Some lowered serotonin, others lowered norepinephrine • This led to the “discovery” of effective antidepressant medications which relieved depression by increasing either serotonin or norepinephrine • Depression likely involves not just serotonin nor norepinephrine… a complex interaction is at work, and other NTs may be involved

  16. What Causes Unipolar Depression?The Biological View • Biochemical factors • Endocrine system / hormone release • People with depression have been found to have abnormal levels of cortisol • Released by the adrenal glands during times of stress • People with depression have been found to have abnormal melatonin secretion • “Dracula hormone” • Other researchers are investigating whether deficiencies of important proteins within neurons are tied to depression

  17. What Are the Biological Treatments for Unipolar Depression? • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) • The use of ECT was -- and is -- controversial • It is now used frequently but only in severe cases • The procedure consists of targeted electrical stimulation to cause a brain seizure • The usual course of treatment is 6 to 12 sessions spaced over two to four weeks • Treatment may be bilateral or unilateral

  18. What Are the Biological Treatments for Unipolar Depression? • Biological treatments can bring great relief to people with unipolar depression • Usually biological treatment means antidepressant drugs, but for severely depressed persons who do not respond to other forms of treatment, it sometimes includes electroconvulsive therapy

  19. What Are the Biological Treatments for Unipolar Depression? • Antidepressant drugs • In the 1950s, two kinds of drugs were found to be effective: • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO inhibitors) • Tricyclics • These drugs have been joined in recent years by a third group, the second-generation antidepressants

  20. Psychological Models of Unipolar Depression • Psychodynamic view • Link between depression and grief • When a loved one dies, the mourner regresses to the oral stage • For most people, grief is temporary • If grief is severe and long-lasting, depression results • Those with oral stage issues (unmet or excessively met needs) are at greater risk for developing depression • Some people experience “symbolic” (not actual) loss • Newer psychoanalysts focus on relationships with others (object relations theorists)

  21. Psychological Models of Unipolar Depression • Behavioral view • Depression results from changes in rewards and punishments people receive in their lives • As life changes, we experience a change (loss) of rewards • Research by Lewinsohn supports the relationship between the number of rewards received and the presence or absence of depression • Social rewards are especially important

  22. Treatments for Unipolar Depression: Psychological Approaches • Behavioral therapy • Lewinsohn developed a behavioral therapy for unipolar depression: • Reintroduce clients to pleasurable activities and events, often using a weekly schedule • Appropriately reinforce their depressive and nondepressive behaviors • Use a contingency management approach • Help them improve their social skills

  23. Psychological Models of Unipolar Depression • Cognitive views • Two main theories: • Learned helplessness • Negative thinking

  24. Psychological Models of Unipolar Depression • Cognitive views • Learned helplessness • Theory holds that people become depressed when they think that: • They no longer have control over the reinforcements in their lives • They themselves are responsible for this helpless state

  25. Psychological Models of Unipolar Depression • Cognitive views • Negative thinking • According to Beck, four interrelated cognitive components combine to produce unipolar depression: • Maladaptive attitudes • Self-defeating attitudes are developed during childhood • Beck suggests that upsetting situations later in life can trigger further rounds of negative thinking

  26. The Sociocultural Model of Unipolar Depression • Sociocultural theorists propose that unipolar depression is greatly influenced by the social structure in which people live • This belief is supported by the finding that depression is often triggered by outside stressors • Researchers have also found links between depression and culture, gender, race, and social support

  27. The Sociocultural Model of Unipolar Depression • How do gender and race relate to depression? • Rates of depression are much higher among women than men • One sociocultural theory holds that the complexity of women’s roles in society leaves them particularly prone to depression • Few differences have been seen overall among Caucasians, African Americans, and Hispanic Americans, but striking differences exist in specific subcultures: • In a study of one Native American village, lifetime risk was 37% among women, 19% among men, and 28% overall • These findings are thought to be the result of economic and social pressures

  28. The Sociocultural Model of Unipolar Depression • How does social support relate to depression? • The availability of social support seems to influence the likelihood of depression • Rates of depression vary based on marital status • Interpersonal conflict may be a factor • Isolation and lack of intimacy also are key factors • Research shows that depressed people who lack social support remain depressed longer than those who have a supportive spouse or warm friendships

  29. Bipolar Disorders • What Are the Symptoms of Mania? • Diagnosing Bipolar Disorders • What Causes Bipolar Disorders? • What Are the Treatments for Bipolar Disorders? Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, Fifth Edition – Chapter 7

  30. What Are the Symptoms of Mania? • Unlike those experiencing depression, people in a state of mania typically experience dramatic and inappropriate rises in mood • Five main areas of functioning may be affected: • Emotional symptoms • Active, powerful emotions in search of outlet • Motivational symptoms • Need for constant excitement, involvement, companionship

  31. What Are the Symptoms of Mania? • Five main areas of functioning may be affected: 3. Behavioral symptoms • Very active – move quickly; talk loudly or rapidly • Key word: flamboyance! 4. Cognitive symptoms • Show poor judgment or planning • Especially prone to poor (or no) planning 5. Physical symptoms • High energy level – often in the presence of little or no rest

  32. Diagnosing Bipolar Disorders • Criteria 1: Manic episode • Three or more symptoms of mania lasting one week or more • In extreme cases, symptoms are psychotic • Criteria 2: History of mania • If currently experiencing hypomania or depression

  33. Diagnosing Bipolar Disorders • Between 1% and 2.6% of adults in the world suffer from a bipolar disorder at any given time • The disorders are equally common in women and men • Women may experience more depressive episodes and fewer manic episodes than men

  34. Diagnosing Bipolar Disorders • The prevalence of the disorders is the same across socioeconomic classes and ethnic groups • Onset usually occurs between 15 and 44 years of age • In most cases, the manic and depressive episodes eventually subside, only to recur at a later time

  35. What Causes Bipolar Disorders? • Neurotransmitters • After finding a relationship between low norepinephrine and unipolar depression, early researchers expected to find a link between high norepinephrine levels and mania • This theory is supported by some research studies; bipolar disorders may be related to overactivity of norepinephrine

  36. What Causes Bipolar Disorders? • Neurotransmitters • Because serotonin activity often parallels norepinephrine activity in unipolar depression, theorists expected that mania would also be related to high serotonin activity • Although no relationship with HIGH serotonin has been found, bipolar disorder may be linked to LOW serotonin activity, which seems contradictory…

  37. What Causes Bipolar Disorders? • Neurotransmitters • This apparent contradiction is addressed by the “permissive theory” about mood disorders: • Low serotonin may “open the door” to a mood disorder and permit norepinephrine activity to define the particular form the disorder will take: • Low serotonin + Low norepinephrine = Depression • Low serotonin + High norepinephrine = Mania

  38. What Are the Treatments for Bipolar Disorders? • The use of lithium, a metallic element occurring as mineral salt, has dramatically changed this picture • It is extraordinarily effective in treating bipolar disorders and mania • Determining the correct dosage for a given patient is a delicate process • Too low = no effect • Too high = lithium intoxication (poisoning)

  39. What Are the Treatments for Bipolar Disorders? • Lithium provides improvement for more than 60% of patients with mania • Most patients also experience fewer new episodes while on the drug • Lithium also is a prophylactic drug, one that actually prevents symptoms from developing • Lithium also helps those with bipolar disorder overcome their depressive episodes

  40. Putting It Together: Making Sense of All That Is Known Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, Fifth Edition – Chapter 7