The Cold War Two Superpowers Emerge
Preview and Processing Who are the main characters in the cartoon? What is the cartoon implying about the United Nations? What is the cartoon saying about communication between democratic and communist countries? How did the Iron Curtain contribute to the Cold War tensions? What was the Cold War?
Two Superpowers • US & USSR: different philosophies • US demobilized after WWII; peace • USSR maintained; protection wh/ = buffer zone Dominate E. Europe: 100 mil more people
United Nations • San Francisco • June 1945 • Two Divisions • General Assembly: every member nation could vote
Security Council: GB, FR, US USSR & China=permanent • 6 other members chosen from G.A. & serve 2 yrs (now up to 10 other members) • 5 perm. Ea. w/ veto power • No major power can refuse to join • Peace keeping force • Social & economic issues: Ed, food health • Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Making the Connection Why is the security council made of five specific nations? How has the UN been used in negotiations? What is the ultimate goal and/or purpose of the UN? Why is the UN often viewed as ineffective?
Atomic and Nuclear Weapons • USSR w/ bomb by 1949 • Hydrogen bomb
Europe After War • Empires fell: GB gave up India • Clement Atlee • (Who is he?) • Germany • Yalta Conference: GER divided into 4 occupation zones controlled by GB, FR USSR & US; Capt. City of Berlin also divided
Making the Connection From the photographs, compare the relationship between the “Big Threes.” Why is deciding on a peace agreement so important after WWII? What lessons did the Allied powers learn from WWI when negotiating peace?
1949 3 democratic zones joined wh/ = Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) • USSRwh/ = German Democratic Republic (East Germany)
Berlin Airlift • June 1948 Stalin blocked entry to W. Berlin • 35 days of food • Massive airlift: 4,500 tons of food & supplies every day (toys) • 60 bombers to GB • May 12, 1949 Stalin ended blockade • Video Clip
Iron Curtain • Satellites: Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia • Buffer zone • Truman Doctrine • Help countries resist communism • Containment • Greece & Turkey • Marshall Plan • $ to W. Europe: 13 bil to 16 countries • Rival Alliances • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) • Warsaw Pact
USSR & Eastern Europe • March 5, 1953 Stalin died • Nikita Khrushchev • Son of a metal worker • Rose through the ranks • De-Stalinization: Stalin had killed & jailed many loyal Soviet citizens • Buried outside Kremlin Wall • Stalingrad renamed Volgograd • Began the building of the Berlin Wall • Cuban Missile Crisis
The Berlin Wall • What was the purpose of the Berlin Wall? • Why did the citizens of Berlin not challenge the wall? • Who was Hans Conrad Schumann? • In what year was the Berlin Wall built and what year did it come down? • Name the Soviet leader who ordered it built and the Soviet leader who ordered it torn down.
August 15, 1961: Leaps over a barbed wire barricade at the Bernauer Street sector into West Berlin
The Berlin Wall • What was the purpose of the Berlin Wall? • Why did the citizens of Berlin not challenge the wall?
The Berlin Wall • Who was Hans Conrad Schumann? • Hans Conrad Schumann(March 28, 1942 – June 20, 1998) was an East German soldier who famously defected to West Germany during the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961
The Berlin Wall • In what year was the Berlin Wall built and what year did it come down? • April 16, 1961 • November 10, 1989
The Berlin Wall • Name the Soviet leader who ordered it built and the Soviet leader who ordered it torn down. • Nikita Khrushchev • Mikhail Gorbachev
Making the Connection • What was the Duck and Cover Program? • Why would the US tell the public that by doing this, they could save their life? (Video: Duck and Cover)
Leonid Brezhnev • Brezhnev Doctrine: Keep counties fr. Turing away fr. Communism