Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 12e. Chapter 1 The Birth of Art: Africa, Europe, and the Near East in the Stone Age . Goals. Understand the origins of art in terms of time period, human development and human activity.
The Birth of Art:
Africa, Europe, and the Near East
in the Stone Age
AFRICA: Namibia during the Paleolithic period Early paintings were portable
Questions the artist would ask:
Namibia: Apollo 11 Cave
AFRICA: Namibia during the Paleolithic period
WESTERN EUROPE: Germany: Hohlenstein-Stadel Cave:
Called “Venuses” after the Greco-Roman goddess of beauty.
Not accurate because there is no proof of the idea of named gods or goddesses in that era.
“Venus” of WillendorfThe Earliest Sculpted Forms
Probably later than the Willendorf figure.
One of the earliest relief sculptures.
Originally part of a large stone block.
Red ochre was applied to the body. [Ochre is a pigment made from tinted clays]
Similar emphasis on the female form to the “Willendorf Venus”The Earliest Sculpted Forms
"The Shaft of the Dead Man."
Understand the effect of climatic and lifestyle changes during the transition from the Paleolithic to the Neolithic period.
Illustrate artistic development as a result of differences between the Paleolithic and Neolithic society and environment.
Understand and evaluate the different types of art prevalent in the Neolithic period.
Inhabited long before Joshua’s Biblical battle. [Jordan River valley.]
Small village as early as 9th millennium BCE.
Developped around 7th mil. BCE.
Town’s wealth grew along with powerful neighbors, thus fortifications were built.
2,000 people estimated in 7500 BCE
Circular Stone Tower – 33 ft diameter at base with inner stairway.
Built with simple stone tools.
Neolithic settlement, near Amman, Jordan. 8-6th mil.
Homes of irregularly shaped stones, plastered, painted walls and floors.
Plaster Statues: Mid-7th mil. Appears to be a ritual burial.
Plaster over a core of reeds and twine.
Orange & black hair, clothing and some body painting. Gender was rarely indicated
Beginning of monumental sculptures [3 ft.]
City without streets: 7-5th mil BCE -- predetermined plan
Twelve building levels excavated, thus revealing the development of a NEOLITHIC culture based on trade in obsidian.
Narrative Painting: Regular appearance of human figure.
Composite view based on what presented the most information about the body segment.
First “landscape” painting? [may have been a map]
Around 4000 BCE Megaliths [standing stones] and Henges [circles of stones] were developed in Western Europe.