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Time Line

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  1. Time Line Middle Ages (450-1450) Rome sacked by Vandals 455 Beowolf c. 700 First Crusade 1066 Black Death 1347-52 Joan of Arc executed by English 1431 Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance

  2. The Middle Ages Period of wars and mass migration Strong class distinctions • Nobility: castles, knights in armor, feasting • Peasantry: lived in huts; serfs—part of land • Clergy: ruled everyone; only monks literate Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance

  3. The Middle Ages Architecture • Early: Romanesque • Late: Gothic Visual Arts • Stressed iconic/symbolic, not realism Late Middle Ages saw technological progress Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance

  4. Chapter 1: Music in the Middle Ages Church dominates musical activity • Most musicians were priests • Women did not sing in mixed church settings Music primarily vocal and sacred • Instruments not used in church Chapter 1

  5. Gregorian Chant Was official music of Roman Catholic Church • No longer common since Second Vatican Council Monophonic melody set to Latin text Flexible rhythm without meter and beat Named for Pope Gregory I (r. 590-604) Originally no music notation system • Notation developed over several centuries

  6. The Church Modes “Otherworldly” sound—basis of Gregorian Chant Different ½ and whole steps than modern scales Middle Ages and Renaissance used these scales • Some Western Music uses these scale patterns • What Do You Do With a Drunken Sailor?—Dorian mode • When Johnny Comes Marching Home—Aeolian mode Chapter 1

  7. Listening Alleluia: Vidimus stellam (We Have Seen His Star) Listening Outline: p. 68 Brief set, CD 1:47 Listen for: Gregorian Chant (Latin language) Many notes per syllable of text Monophonic texture Ternary form—A B A Chapter 1

  8. Chapter 1: Music in Nonwestern Cultures Characteristics of Nonwestern Music It reflects its supporting culture • Frequently linked with religion, dance and drama • Often used to communicate messages and relate traditions Chapter 1

  9. Oral Tradition Frequently transmitted by oral tradition • Music notation far less important than in western culture • Many cultures do not have a music notation • When they do, it serves as a record, not for teaching or performance Chapter 1

  10. Improvisation Improvisation is frequently basic to the music • Improvisation usually based on traditional melodic phrases and rhythmic patterns Chapter 1

  11. Voices Singing usually main way of making music Vocal approach, timbre, and techniques vary throughout the world • Nasal sound • Strained tone • Throat singing • Many others Chapter 1

  12. Music in Society Music permeates African life from religion, entertainment, and magic to rites of passage It is so interwoven into life that the abstract word “music” is not used by many peoples Chapter 2

  13. Closely associated with dancing in ceremonies, rituals, and celebrations • Dancers frequently play and sing while dancing Music is a social activity—everyone joins in No musical notation—passed by oral tradition Chapter 2

  14. Elements of African Music Rhythm and Percussion Complex rhythms and polyrhythms predominate Dancers choose to follow any of the various rhythms The body used as an instrument • Clapping, stamping, slapping thigh/chest Chapter 2

  15. Vocal Music Wide variety of sounds, even within a single piece • Call and response extremely common Percussion ostinato frequently accompanies singers Short musical phrases repeated to different words Chapter 2

  16. Texture Often homophonic or polyphonic • This is unlike most nonwestern musics Same melody often sung at many pitch levels Chapter 2

  17. Listening Ompeh Song from central Ghana Claude Debussy Listening Outline: p. 411 Brief Set, CD 4:66 Music of the Akan-speaking peoples in Ghana. Listen for: Call and response Solo vocalist and chorus Percussion ensemble Chapter 2

  18. Time Line Renaissance (1450-1600) • Guttenberg Bible 1456 • Columbus reaches America 1492 • Leonardo da Vinci: Mona Lisa c. 1503 • Michelangelo: David 1504 • Raphael: School of Athens 1505 • Martin Luther’s 95 Theses 1517 • Shakespeare: Romeo and Juliet 1596 Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance

  19. The Renaissance Rebirth of human learning and creativity Time of great explorers Humanism Fascination with ancient Greece and Rome Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance

  20. David by Michelangelo The Renaissance Visual art becomes more realistic • Mythology is favorite subject • Nude body, as in ancient times, is shown Weakening of the Catholic Church Education and literacy now status symbol • Result of invention of printing press Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance

  21. Chapter 2: Music in the Renaissance Church choirs grew in size (all male) Rise of the individual patron • Musical center shifted from church to courts • Court composers wrote secular and sacred music • Women did not sing in mixed church settings Chapter 2

  22. Musicians: higher status and pay than before • Composers became known for their work Many composers were Franco-Flemish • Worked throughout Europe, especially in Italy Italy became music capital in 16th century • Other important centers: Germany, England, Spain Chapter 2

  23. Characteristics of Renaissance Music Words and Music Vocal music more important than instrumental Word painting/text painting Chapter 2

  24. Texture Polyphonic Primarily vocal - a cappella • Instruments, if present, doubled the vocal parts Rhythm and Melody Rhythm “flows” and overlaps • Composers less concerned with metrical accents Smooth, stepwise melodies predominate • Melodies overlap rhythmically between voices Chapter 2

  25. Secular Music in the Renaissance Madrigal • Intended for amateur performers (after dinner music) • Extensive use of text painting • Printed in part-book or opposing-sheet format Printing Printing • Originated in Italy • English madrigal lighter and simpler Printing Printing Chapter 2

  26. Listening As Vesta was Descending (1601) by Thomas Weelkes Vocal Music Guide: p. 87 Brief Set, CD 1:62 Follow text (English) throughout song Note text painting: Pitches rise on “ascending” Pitches fall on “descending” “Running down” “Two by two,” “three by three,” “all alone” Chapter 2

  27. Time Line Shakespeare: Hamlet 1600 Cervantes: Don Quixote 1605 Jamestown founded 1607 Galileo: Earth orbits Sun 1610 King James Bible 1611 Newton: Principia Mathematica 1687 Witchcraft trials in Salem, Mass. 1692 Defoe: Robinson Crusoe 1719 Swift: Gulliver’s Travels 1726 PART III—THE BAROQUE PERIOD

  28. The Baroque Style Time of flamboyant lifestyle Baroque style “fills the space” Visual Art • Implies motion • Note pictures p. 93 • Busy • Note pictures p. 94 PART III—THE BAROQUE PERIOD

  29. The Baroque Style Architecture • Elaborate • Note picture p. 95 Change in approach to science • Experiment-based, not just observation • Inventions and improvements result PART III—THE BAROQUE PERIOD

  30. Chapter 1: Baroque Music Period begins with rise of opera • Opera: a play with speaking parts sung Period ends with death of J. S. Bach The two giants: Bach and Handel Other important composers: • Claudio Monteverdi • Henry Purcell • Arcangelo Corelli • Antonio Vivaldi Chapter 1

  31. Period divided into 3 phases: • Early: 1600-1640 • Rise of opera • Text with extreme emotion • Homophonic to project words Chapter 1

  32. Period divided into 3 phases: • Early: 1600-1640 • Middle: 1640-1680 • New musical style spreads from Italy throughout Europe • Use of the church modes gives way to major and minor scales • Rise of importance of instrumental music Chapter 1

  33. Period divided into 3 phases: • Early: 1600-1640 • Middle: 1640-1680 • Late: 1680-1750 • Instrumental music becomes as important as vocal music • Elaborate polyphony dominates • Most baroque music we hear comes from the Late Baroque Chapter 1

  34. Chapter 2:Music in Baroque Society Music written to order • New music, not old-fashioned, was desired Courts: • Music and musical resources indicated affluence Court Music Director • Good prestige, pay, and other benefits • Still considered a skilled servant Chapter 2

  35. Some aristocrats were musicians Church music was very elaborate • Most people heard music only in church Some, though few, public opera houses Music careers taught by apprenticeship • Orphanages taught music as a trade Chapter 2

  36. Characteristics of Baroque Music • Expresses one mood per piece Unity of Mood Rhythm • Rhythmic patterns are repeated throughout Melody • Opening melody heard again and again Dynamics • Volumes constant with abrupt changes Texture • Late baroque mostly polyphonic • Extensive use of imitation Chapter 1

  37. Chords and the Basso Continuo • Emphasis on way chords follow each other • Bass part considered foundation of the harmony • Basso Continuo: bass part with numbers to represent chord tones • Similar to modern jazz and pop “fake book” notation Words and Music • Text painting/word painting continues • Words frequently emphasized by extension through many rapid notes Chapter 1

  38. Chapter 5: The Elements of Opera Drama sung to orchestral accompaniment Text in opera is called libretto • Music is written by a composer • Libretto is written by a librettist Opera can be serious, comic, or both Chapter 5

  39. Two primary types of solo songs: • Recitative: presents plot material • Aria: expresses emotion—usually a “show-off” vehicle for the singer Other types of songs in opera: • Duet • Trio • Quartet • Quintet, etc. • Allows for conversation between characters • Three or more singers make up an ensemble Chapter 5

  40. Chorus: groups of actors playing crowd parts The prompter and the prompter’s box The orchestra pit Preludes: Instrumentals that open opera acts Modern questions concerning text in opera • Translation of text and effects upon text painting • Supertitles—projection of text above the stage Chapter 5

  41. Chapter 7: Claudio Monteverdi Italian, early baroque composer Wrote first great operatic work, Orfeo Worked last 30 years at St. Mark’s in Venice • Composed both sacred music and secular music for the aristocracy Only three of his twelve operas still exist Chapter 7

  42. Listening Tu Se’ Morta from Orfeo (Orpheus, 1607) Claudio Monteverdi Vocal Music Guide p. 119 Brief Set, CD 1:71 Listen for: Homophonic texture Rhythmically free vocal line Use of text painting Chapter 7

  43. Time Line Freud: Interpretation of Dreams 1900 Einstein: special theory of relativity 1905 First World War 1914-1918 Russian Revolution begins 1917 Great Depression begins 1929 Hitler appointed chancellor of Germany 1933 Second World War 1939-1945 Atomic bomb destroys Hiroshima 1945 PART VI—THE TWENTIETH CENTURY AND BEYOND

  44. Time Line Korean War 1950-1953 Crick & Watson: structure of DNA 1953 Vietnam War 1955-1975 President Kennedy assassinated 1963 American astronauts land on moon 1969 Dissolution of the Soviet Union 1991 Mandela elected president of South Africa 1994 Terrorist attacks in U.S. 2001 War in Iraq began 2003 PART VI—THE TWENTIETH CENTURY AND BEYOND

  45. Characteristics of Twentieth-Century Music Tone Color Unusual playing techniques were called for • Glissando, flutter tongue, col legno, extended notes Percussion use was greatly expanded • New instruments were added/created • Xylophone, celesta, woodblock, … • Other “instruments:” typewriter, automobile brake drum, siren Chapter 1

  46. Music not written for choirs of instruments • Composers wrote for timbres, or “groups of soloists” • Unusual groupings of instruments for small ensembles • Orchestra scoring also reflects this trend Chapter 1

  47. Harmony Consonance and Dissonance Harmony and treatment of chords changed • Before 1900: consonant and dissonant • Opposite sides of the coin • After 1900: degrees of dissonance Chapter 1

  48. Rhythm Rhythmic vocabulary expanded • Emphasis upon irregularity and unpredictability • Shifting meters • Irregular meters • Polyrhythm Chapter 1

  49. Melody Melody no longer bound by harmony’s notes Major and minor keys no longer dominate Melody may be based upon a variety of scales, or even all twelve tones • Frequent wide leaps • Rhythmically irregular • Unbalanced phrases Chapter 1

  50. Chapter 18: Jazz Developed in the United States • Began around 1900 in New Orleans • Originally music for bars and brothels • Early practitioners primarily African-American Main characteristics • Improvisation • Syncopated rhythm • Steady beat • Call and response Originally performance music; not notated Tremendous impact on pop and art music Chapter 18