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Time Line Middle Ages (450-1450) Rome sacked by Vandals 455 Beowolf c. 700 First Crusade 1066 Black Death 1347-52 Joan of Arc executed by English 1431 Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance The Middle Ages Period of wars and mass migration

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time line
Time Line

Middle Ages (450-1450)

Rome sacked by Vandals 455

Beowolf c. 700

First Crusade 1066

Black Death 1347-52

Joan of Arc executed by English 1431

Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance

the middle ages
The Middle Ages

Period of wars and mass migration

Strong class distinctions

  • Nobility: castles, knights in armor, feasting
  • Peasantry: lived in huts; serfs—part of land
  • Clergy: ruled everyone; only monks literate

Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance

the middle ages3
The Middle Ages


  • Early: Romanesque
  • Late: Gothic

Visual Arts

  • Stressed iconic/symbolic, not realism

Late Middle Ages saw technological progress

Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance

chapter 1 music in the middle ages
Chapter 1: Music in the Middle Ages

Church dominates musical activity

  • Most musicians were priests
  • Women did not sing in mixed church settings

Music primarily vocal and sacred

  • Instruments not used in church

Chapter 1


Gregorian Chant

Was official music of Roman Catholic Church

  • No longer common since Second Vatican Council

Monophonic melody set to Latin text

Flexible rhythm without meter and beat

Named for Pope Gregory I (r. 590-604)

Originally no music notation system

  • Notation developed over several centuries

The Church Modes

“Otherworldly” sound—basis of Gregorian Chant

Different ½ and whole steps than modern scales

Middle Ages and Renaissance used these scales

  • Some Western Music uses these scale patterns
  • What Do You Do With a Drunken Sailor?—Dorian mode
  • When Johnny Comes Marching Home—Aeolian mode

Chapter 1


Alleluia: Vidimus stellam

(We Have Seen His Star)

Listening Outline: p. 68

Brief set, CD 1:47

Listen for: Gregorian Chant (Latin language)

Many notes per syllable of text

Monophonic texture

Ternary form—A B A

Chapter 1

chapter 1 music in nonwestern cultures
Chapter 1: Music in Nonwestern Cultures

Characteristics of Nonwestern Music

It reflects its supporting culture

  • Frequently linked with religion, dance and drama
  • Often used to communicate messages and relate traditions

Chapter 1


Oral Tradition

Frequently transmitted by oral tradition

  • Music notation far less important than in western culture
  • Many cultures do not have a music notation
  • When they do, it serves as a record, not for teaching or performance

Chapter 1



Improvisation is frequently basic to the music

  • Improvisation usually based on traditional melodic phrases and rhythmic patterns

Chapter 1



Singing usually main way of making music

Vocal approach, timbre, and techniques vary throughout the world

  • Nasal sound
  • Strained tone
  • Throat singing
  • Many others

Chapter 1


Music in Society

Music permeates African life from religion, entertainment, and magic to rites of passage

It is so interwoven into life that the abstract word “music” is not used by many peoples

Chapter 2


Closely associated with dancing in ceremonies, rituals, and celebrations

  • Dancers frequently play and sing while dancing

Music is a social activity—everyone joins in

No musical notation—passed by oral tradition

Chapter 2


Elements of African Music

Rhythm and Percussion

Complex rhythms and polyrhythms predominate

Dancers choose to follow any of the various rhythms

The body used as an instrument

  • Clapping, stamping, slapping thigh/chest

Chapter 2


Vocal Music

Wide variety of sounds, even within a single piece

  • Call and response extremely common

Percussion ostinato frequently accompanies singers

Short musical phrases repeated to different words

Chapter 2



Often homophonic or polyphonic

  • This is unlike most nonwestern musics

Same melody often sung at many pitch levels

Chapter 2



Song from central Ghana

Claude Debussy

Listening Outline: p. 411

Brief Set, CD 4:66

Music of the Akan-speaking peoples in Ghana.

Listen for: Call and response

Solo vocalist and chorus

Percussion ensemble

Chapter 2

time line18
Time Line

Renaissance (1450-1600)

  • Guttenberg Bible 1456
  • Columbus reaches America 1492
  • Leonardo da Vinci: Mona Lisa c. 1503
  • Michelangelo: David 1504
  • Raphael: School of Athens 1505
  • Martin Luther’s 95 Theses 1517
  • Shakespeare: Romeo and Juliet 1596

Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance

the renaissance
The Renaissance

Rebirth of human learning and creativity

Time of great explorers


Fascination with ancient Greece and Rome

Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance

the renaissance20

David by Michelangelo

The Renaissance

Visual art becomes more realistic

  • Mythology is favorite subject
  • Nude body, as in ancient times, is shown

Weakening of the Catholic Church

Education and literacy now status symbol

  • Result of invention of printing press

Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance

chapter 2 music in the renaissance
Chapter 2: Music in the Renaissance

Church choirs grew in size (all male)

Rise of the individual patron

  • Musical center shifted from church to courts
  • Court composers wrote secular and sacred music
  • Women did not sing in mixed church settings

Chapter 2


Musicians: higher status and pay than before

  • Composers became known for their work

Many composers were Franco-Flemish

  • Worked throughout Europe, especially in Italy

Italy became music capital in 16th century

  • Other important centers: Germany, England, Spain

Chapter 2


Characteristics of Renaissance Music

Words and Music

Vocal music more important than instrumental

Word painting/text painting

Chapter 2




Primarily vocal - a cappella

  • Instruments, if present, doubled the vocal parts

Rhythm and Melody

Rhythm “flows” and overlaps

  • Composers less concerned with metrical accents

Smooth, stepwise melodies predominate

  • Melodies overlap rhythmically between voices

Chapter 2

secular music in the renaissance
Secular Music in the Renaissance


  • Intended for amateur performers (after dinner music)
  • Extensive use of text painting
  • Printed in part-book or opposing-sheet format



  • Originated in Italy
  • English madrigal lighter and simpler



Chapter 2


As Vesta was Descending (1601)

by Thomas Weelkes

Vocal Music Guide: p. 87

Brief Set, CD 1:62

Follow text (English) throughout song

Note text painting:

Pitches rise on “ascending”

Pitches fall on “descending”

“Running down”

“Two by two,” “three by three,” “all alone”

Chapter 2

time line27
Time Line

Shakespeare: Hamlet 1600

Cervantes: Don Quixote 1605

Jamestown founded 1607

Galileo: Earth orbits Sun 1610

King James Bible 1611

Newton: Principia Mathematica 1687

Witchcraft trials in Salem, Mass. 1692

Defoe: Robinson Crusoe 1719

Swift: Gulliver’s Travels 1726


the baroque style
The Baroque Style

Time of flamboyant lifestyle

Baroque style “fills the space”

Visual Art

  • Implies motion
  • Note pictures p. 93
  • Busy
  • Note pictures p. 94


the baroque style29
The Baroque Style


  • Elaborate
  • Note picture p. 95

Change in approach to science

  • Experiment-based, not just observation
  • Inventions and improvements result


chapter 1 baroque music
Chapter 1: Baroque Music

Period begins with rise of opera

  • Opera: a play with speaking parts sung

Period ends with death of J. S. Bach

The two giants: Bach and Handel

Other important composers:

  • Claudio Monteverdi
  • Henry Purcell
  • Arcangelo Corelli
  • Antonio Vivaldi

Chapter 1


Period divided into 3 phases:

  • Early: 1600-1640
  • Rise of opera
  • Text with extreme emotion
  • Homophonic to project words

Chapter 1


Period divided into 3 phases:

  • Early: 1600-1640
  • Middle: 1640-1680
  • New musical style spreads from Italy throughout Europe
  • Use of the church modes gives way to major and minor scales
  • Rise of importance of instrumental music

Chapter 1


Period divided into 3 phases:

  • Early: 1600-1640
  • Middle: 1640-1680
  • Late: 1680-1750
  • Instrumental music becomes as important as vocal music
  • Elaborate polyphony dominates
  • Most baroque music we hear comes from the Late Baroque

Chapter 1

chapter 2 music in baroque society
Chapter 2:Music in Baroque Society

Music written to order

  • New music, not old-fashioned, was desired


  • Music and musical resources indicated affluence

Court Music Director

  • Good prestige, pay, and other benefits
  • Still considered a skilled servant

Chapter 2

Some aristocrats were musicians

Church music was very elaborate

  • Most people heard music only in church

Some, though few, public opera houses

Music careers taught by apprenticeship

  • Orphanages taught music as a trade

Chapter 2


Characteristics of Baroque Music

  • Expresses one mood per piece

Unity of Mood


  • Rhythmic patterns are repeated throughout


  • Opening melody heard again and again


  • Volumes constant with abrupt changes


  • Late baroque mostly polyphonic
  • Extensive use of imitation

Chapter 1


Chords and the Basso Continuo

  • Emphasis on way chords follow each other
  • Bass part considered foundation of the harmony
  • Basso Continuo: bass part with numbers to represent chord tones
  • Similar to modern jazz and pop “fake book” notation

Words and Music

  • Text painting/word painting continues
  • Words frequently emphasized by extension through many rapid notes

Chapter 1

chapter 5 the elements of opera
Chapter 5: The Elements of Opera

Drama sung to orchestral accompaniment

Text in opera is called libretto

  • Music is written by a composer
  • Libretto is written by a librettist

Opera can be serious, comic, or both

Chapter 5


Two primary types of solo songs:

  • Recitative: presents plot material
  • Aria: expresses emotion—usually a “show-off” vehicle for the singer

Other types of songs in opera:

  • Duet
  • Trio
  • Quartet
  • Quintet, etc.
  • Allows for conversation between characters
  • Three or more singers make up an ensemble

Chapter 5

Chorus: groups of actors playing crowd parts

The prompter and the prompter’s box

The orchestra pit

Preludes: Instrumentals that open opera acts

Modern questions concerning text in opera

  • Translation of text and effects upon text painting
  • Supertitles—projection of text above the stage

Chapter 5

chapter 7 claudio monteverdi
Chapter 7: Claudio Monteverdi

Italian, early baroque composer

Wrote first great operatic work, Orfeo

Worked last 30 years at St. Mark’s in Venice

  • Composed both sacred music and secular music for the aristocracy

Only three of his twelve operas still exist

Chapter 7


Tu Se’ Morta from Orfeo (Orpheus, 1607)

Claudio Monteverdi

Vocal Music Guide p. 119

Brief Set, CD 1:71

Listen for: Homophonic texture

Rhythmically free vocal line

Use of text painting

Chapter 7

time line43
Time Line

Freud: Interpretation of Dreams 1900

Einstein: special theory of relativity 1905

First World War 1914-1918

Russian Revolution begins 1917

Great Depression begins 1929

Hitler appointed chancellor of Germany 1933

Second World War 1939-1945

Atomic bomb destroys Hiroshima 1945


time line44
Time Line

Korean War 1950-1953

Crick & Watson: structure of DNA 1953

Vietnam War 1955-1975

President Kennedy assassinated 1963

American astronauts land on moon 1969

Dissolution of the Soviet Union 1991

Mandela elected president of South Africa 1994

Terrorist attacks in U.S. 2001

War in Iraq began 2003



Characteristics of Twentieth-Century Music

Tone Color

Unusual playing techniques were called for

  • Glissando, flutter tongue, col legno, extended notes

Percussion use was greatly expanded

  • New instruments were added/created
  • Xylophone, celesta, woodblock, …
  • Other “instruments:” typewriter, automobile brake drum, siren

Chapter 1


Music not written for choirs of instruments

  • Composers wrote for timbres, or “groups of soloists”
  • Unusual groupings of instruments for small ensembles
  • Orchestra scoring also reflects this trend

Chapter 1



Consonance and Dissonance

Harmony and treatment of chords changed

  • Before 1900: consonant and dissonant
  • Opposite sides of the coin
  • After 1900: degrees of dissonance

Chapter 1



Rhythmic vocabulary expanded

  • Emphasis upon irregularity and unpredictability
  • Shifting meters
  • Irregular meters
  • Polyrhythm

Chapter 1



Melody no longer bound by harmony’s notes

Major and minor keys no longer dominate

Melody may be based upon a variety of scales, or even all twelve tones

  • Frequent wide leaps
  • Rhythmically irregular
  • Unbalanced phrases

Chapter 1

chapter 18 jazz
Chapter 18: Jazz

Developed in the United States

  • Began around 1900 in New Orleans
  • Originally music for bars and brothels
  • Early practitioners primarily African-American

Main characteristics

  • Improvisation
  • Syncopated rhythm
  • Steady beat
  • Call and response

Originally performance music; not notated

Tremendous impact on pop and art music

Chapter 18


Jazz in Society

Geographical center has moved around

Originally music for dancing

  • Listening forms later developed
  • No longer associated with unfashionable lifestyle
  • Colleges now offer bachelor and graduate degrees in jazz

Chapter 18


Roots of Jazz

Blend of elements of several cultures

  • West African emphasis on improvisation, percussion, and call and response techniques
  • American brass band influence on instrumentation
  • European harmonic and structural practice

Ragtime and blues were immediate sources

Chapter 18



Vocal and instrumental form

Twelve-measure (bar) musical structure

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12






Three-part vocal structure: a a’ b

  • Statement—repeat of statement—counterstatement

Chapter 18


Lost Your Head Blues (1926)

Performed by Bessie Smith

(Smith known as “Empress of the Blues”)

Vocal Music Guide: p. 375

Brief Set, CD 4:57

Listen for: Strophic form

Twelve-bar blues form

Three-part (a a’ b) vocal structure

Trumpet answers vocalist (call and response)

Performance Profile: Bessie Smith, vocalist

Listen for performer’s interpretation that includes clear diction, powerful round sound, and “bent” notes

Chapter 18

chapter 20 rock
Chapter 20: Rock
  • First called rock and roll, later shortened to rock

Developed in mid-1950s

Common features:

  • Vocal
  • Hard-driving beat
  • Featured electric guitar
  • Made use of heavily amplified sound

Grew mainly from rhythm and blues

  • Also drew influences from country and western

Incorporated new technologies as they came available

Chapter 20


Development of Rock

Early performers included:

  • Chuck Berry
  • Little Richard
  • The Platters
  • Bill Haley and His Comets
  • Rock Around the Clock
  • Elvis Presley (King of Rock and Roll)

Chapter 20



Rock by black performers called soul

  • James Brown, Ray Charles, Aretha Franklin

Motown blended R&B with mainstream music

  • Diana Ross & the Supremes, Stevie Wonder, …

1964: US tour by the Beatles, an English group

  • More English groups followed: The British Invasion
  • Rolling Stones, The Who, …
  • Beatles most influential group in rock history

Chapter 20


Elements of Rock

Tone Color

Guitar-based, small core performance group

  • Two guitars, bass guitar, drum set, keyboards
  • Usually a singer/instrumentalist
  • Occasionally other instruments (horns, strings, etc.)

Frequent vocal effects (shout, scream, falsetto)

Chapter 20



Almost always in 4/4 meter

  • Simple subdivision of beats
  • 1 & 2 & 3 & 4 &, 1 & 2 & 3 & 4 &, …
  • Late-70s & 80s: more rhythmically complex
  • Result of polyrhythmic influences of African music

Chapter 20


Form, Melody, and Harmony

Two commonly utilized forms:

  • Twelve-bar blues form
  • Thirty-two-bar A A B A form

Short, repeated melodic patterns

Usually built on modes, not major/minor

Harmonically simple

  • Usually three or four (or fewer) chords
  • Often uses chord progressions that were rare in earlier popular music

Chapter 20


Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds (1967)

from Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band

The Beatles

Sgt. Pepper was rock setting of unified song cycle (13 songs). Wide range of instruments, influences, and styles.

Listening Guide: p. 400

Lucy in the Sky, third song in cycle, has three sections: A & B are gentle in triple meter, while C strongly contrasts and is in quadruple meter.

Chapter 20

time line62
Time Line

Monroe Doctrine 1823

Hugo: Hunchback of Notre Dame 1831

Dickens: Oliver Twist 1837

Dumas: The Three Musketeers 1844

Poe: The Raven 1845

Darwin: Origin of Species 1859

American Civil War 1861-1865

Twain: Huckleberry Finn 1884

Bell invents telephone 1876


romanticism 1820 1900
Romanticism (1820-1900)

Stressed emotion, imagination, and individualism

Emotional subjectivity basis of arts

Favorite artistic topics:

  • Fantasy and the supernatural
  • Middle Ages/concept of chivalry and romance
  • Architecture revived Gothic elements
  • Nature as mirror of the human heart

Period of the Industrial Revolution

  • Resulted in social and economic changes


chapter 1 romanticism in music
Chapter 1: Romanticism in Music

Many important Romantic composers

  • Franz Schubert
  • Bedrich Smetana
  • Antonin Dvořák
  • Peter Tchaikovsky
  • Johannes Brahms
  • Giuseppe Verdi
  • Giacomo Puccini
  • Richard Wagner
  • Robert Schumann
  • Clara Schumann
  • Frederic Chopin
  • Franz Liszt
  • Felix Mendelssohn
  • Hector Berlioz

Chapter 1


Continued use of classical period forms

  • Much individual alteration and adjustment

Greater range of tone color, dynamics, and pitch than in classical period

Expanded harmony—complex chords

Chapter 1


Characteristics of Romantic Music

Individuality of Style

Composers wanted uniquely identifiable music

  • Worked to find their own voice

In romantic music, it is far easier to identify individual composers through listening

Chapter 1


Expressive Aims and Subjects

All approaches were explored:

  • Flamboyance, intimacy, unpredictability, melancholy, rapture, longing, …

Romantic love still the focus of songs and operas

  • Lovers frequently depicted as unhappy and facing overwhelming obstacles

Dark topics draw composers

Chapter 1


Colorful Harmony

Chords built with notes not in traditional keys

  • Chromatic harmony

Harmonic instability a consciously used device

  • Wide use of keys
  • Frequent and rapid modulation

Chapter 1


Expanded Range of Dynamics,

Pitch, and Tempo

Dynamics ff, pp expanded to ffff and pppp

Extremely high and low pitches were added

Changes in mood frequently underlined by (sometimes subtle) shifts in tempo

  • Rubato: slight holding back or pressing forward of tempo

Chapter 1


Forms: Miniature and Monumental

Some composers went on for hours

  • Required hundreds of performers

Others’ music lasted only a few minutes

  • Written for a single instrument

Composers wrote symphonies, sonatas, string quartets, concertos, operas, and many other classically traditional works

Chapter 1

chapter 2 romantic composers and their public
Chapter 2: Romantic Composers and Their Public

Demise of the patronage system

  • Composers regarded themselves as “free spirits”
  • Decline in aristocratic fortune—Napoleonic wars

New urban classes and new musical topics

Music conservatories founded in Europe and U.S.

Public was entranced by virtuosity

Chapter 2


Private music-making increased

  • Piano became fixture in most homes

Composers and audience came from the same social class

Few composers were financially successful

  • Most supported themselves through performing, teaching lessons, and/or authoring

Chapter 2

chapter 3 the art song
Chapter 3: The Art Song

Composition for solo voice and piano

  • Accompaniment integral part of the song

Linked to vast amount of poetry in this period

  • Composers interpret poem’s, mood, atmosphere and imagery into music
  • Mood often set at beginning with piano introduction and summed up at end with piano postlude

Chapter 3


Strophic and Through-Composed Form

Strophic form repeats music for each verse

Through-composed—new music for each verse

Sometimes modified strophic form used

The Song Cycle

Group of songs unified in some manner

  • Storyline or musical idea may link the songs

Chapter 3

chapter 4 franz schubert
Chapter 4: Franz Schubert

Born in Vienna (1797-1828)

Early Romantic composer

Prodigious output

  • When eh was 18 years old, he wrote 143 songs
  • At 19 years of age, he wrote 179 works
  • Included two symphonies, an opera, and a mass

Not financially successful

  • His symphonies were not performed until after his death

Chapter 4


Schubert’s Music

Wrote over 600 songs

  • Also symphonies, string quartets, other chamber music, sonatas, masses, operas, and piano works
  • The Unfinished Symphony: only two movements, not four

Chapter 4


Erlkonig (The Erlking; 1815)

Franz Schubert

Vocal Music Guide: p. 223

Brief Set, CD 3:12

Based upon narrative ballad with supernatural topic by Goethe

Listen for: Through-composed form

Piano portrays galloping horse

Different characters have their notes pitched at different levels to emphasize dialog

Dramatic ending

Chapter 4

chapter 11 johann sebastian bach
Chapter 11: Johann Sebastian Bach

German, late baroque composer

Organist and violinist

  • Deeply religious (Lutheran)
  • Worked in sacred and secular positions
  • Weimar, Cothen, Leipzig

Large family

Chapter 11


Known during lifetime as keyboardist, not composer

  • Master of improvisation

Almost unknown outside Germany

Baroque style going out of fashion during his lifetime

  • Bach’s music fell from use following his death

Chapter 11


Bach’s Music

Wrote in every form except opera

  • Compositions recognized for technical mastery
  • Highpoint of polyphony combined with harmony
  • All music majors study Bach’s compositions

His extensive instrumental works indicate the new importance of instrumental music

Wrote music exploring musical concepts

  • Art of the Fugue demonstrates potential of this form
  • Six suites for solo cello demonstrates cello techniques
  • Well-Tempered Clavier explores new method of tuning

Chapter 11

chapter 13 the chorale and church cantata
Chapter 13: The Chorale and Church Cantata

Lutheran church service was social event of the week

  • Lasted four hours with one-hour sermon
  • Music was major part of worship service
  • Congregation participated in singing chorales

Chapter 13


Chorale: hymn tune with German text


  • Multi-movement church work for chorus, soloists, and orchestra
  • Vernacular religious text
  • Resembled opera in its use of choruses, recitatives, arias, and duets

Chapter 13


Cantata No. 140: Wachet Auf, Ruft Uns Die Stimme

(Awake, A Voice Is Calling Us-1731)

Johann Sebastian Bach

Based upon a chorale tune that was then over 130 years old

Listening Guide: p. 135

Brief Set, CD 2:45

Listen for: Vernacular (German) text

A A B form

Chapter 13


Cantata No. 140: Wachet Auf, Ruft Uns Die Stimme

(Awake, A Voice Is Calling Us-1731)

Johann Sebastian Bach

First movement: Chorus and Orchestra

Listening Guides: pp. 136-138

Basic Set, CD 2:39

Listen for: Vernacular (German) text

Chorale tune basis


Ritornello form

Chapter 13


Cantata No. 140: Wachet Auf, Ruft Uns Die Stimme

(Awake, A Voice Is Calling Us-1731)

Johann Sebastian Bach

Fourth movement: Tenor Chorale

Vocal Music Guide: p. 139

Basic Set, CD 2:39 (Brief Set, CD 2:12)

Listen for: Scored for tenors, violins/violas in unison, and basso continuo

Chorale tune basis

Ritornello form

Chapter 13


Cantata No. 140: Wachet Auf, Ruft Uns Die Stimme

(Awake, A Voice Is Calling Us-1731)

Johann Sebastian Bach

Seventh movement: Chorale

Vocal Music Guide: p. 140

Basic Set, CD 2:45 (Brief Set, CD 2:15)

Listen for: Chorale tune basis

Homophonic, instruments double voices

Simple/tuneful—congregation could join in

Chapter 13

chapter 14 the oratorio
Chapter 14: The Oratorio

Like opera:

  • Large-scale work for chorus, soloists, and orchestra
  • Contains arias, recitatives, ensembles

Unlike opera:

  • No acting, scenery, or costumes
  • Based upon biblical stories

Not intended for religious services

  • Commonly performed today in both churches and concert halls

Chapter 14

chapter 15 george frederic handel
Chapter 15: George Frederic Handel

Born in Germany—same year as Bach

  • Not from musical family
  • Father wanted him to be a lawyer

Studied music in Germany, then to Italy to study opera, finally England to work

  • Became England’s most important composer
  • Wrote many operas in London
  • Had own opera company
  • Worked as composer, performer, and impresario
  • Buried in Westminster Abbey

Chapter 15


Handel’s Music

Wrote in every baroque form

  • Bulk of his work in oratorios and operas
  • Favored Old Testament stories as topics for oratorios

His music has more changes in texture than Bach’s

Extensive use of changing moods

  • Shifts between major and minor keys
  • His arias showcase virtuoso singers’ abilities

Chapter 15

The Messiah (1741)

George Frederic Handel

2½ hours of music written over a period of 24 days

Premiered to wide acclaim during a trip to Ireland

Poorly received in England until a performance to benefit an orphanage

Topic: Prophesies about Christ, his birth, and death

Text drawn from Biblical passages

Chapter 15


The Messiah (1741)

George Frederic Handel

Ev’ry Valley Shall Be Exalted

Aria for tenor, strings, and basso continuo

Vocal Music Guide: p. 144

Brief Set, CD 2:10

Listen for: Opens and closes with string ritornello

Extensive text painting

Chapter 15


The Messiah (1741)

George Frederic Handel

For unto Us a Child is Born

Chorus, strings, and basso continuo

Listening Guide: p. 147

Basic Set, CD 2:51

Listen for: Joyful musical mood

Subdued dynamics until forte outburst

Extensive text painting

Chapter 15


The Messiah (1741)

George Frederic Handel

Hallelujah Chorus

Vocal Music Guide: pp. 146-147

Brief Set, CD 2:11

Listen for: Mixture of monophonic, polyphonic, homophonic textures

Words and phrases repeat over and over

Chapter 15