The High Middle Ages (1050-1450) Chapter 8
Section 1: Growth of Royal Power in England and France • Monarchs, Nobles and the Church • How was power distributed amongst these groups in the middle ages? • How did monarchs try to centralize their power?
Strong Monarchs in England • Middle Ages – Angles, Saxons, and Vikings invaded and settled in England • England exception to the rule – how was feudalism different there? • The Norman Conquest • Why did the Duke of Normandy attack anglo-saxon King Edward’s brother, Harold? • What is the significance of the Battle of Hastings in 1066? • Why does William win?
Strong Monarchs in England • William the Conqueror • How does the new king of England try to centralize his control? • 1. • 2. • 3. • 4. • 5.
Strong Monarchs in England • Tracing the Evolution of Law and Parliament • Henry II – 1154 • What did Henry do that continued to format law while still centralizing his power? • Conflict with the Church – What problems emerged between Henry and the RCC? • What happened to the archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Beckett?
Strong Monarchs in England • Evolving Traditions of English Government • What happened in England between the monarch and the barons? • John’s Troubles • Faced 3 powerful enemies: King Philip II of France, Pope Innocent III and his own English nobles • How did he deal with each one?
Strong Monarchs in England • The Magna Carta – What is it? • Who made King John sign it in 1215? • In this document the king affirmed a long list of feudal rights • What were these rights? • What is the significance of this document? • it asserted that the nobles had certain rights that would eventually be given to all English citizens • it was clear that the monarch must obey the law
Strong Monarchs in England • Development of Parliament • During the 1200’s the Great Council evolved into Parliament • Helped to unify England • The assembly of nobles clergy, eventually middle class and the “commons” became known as the Model Parliament • In time became two house body • House of Lords and House of Commons • Parliament could “check” the power of the king
Successful Monarchs in France • Successors of Charlemagne had little power over the territories ruled by the great feudal nobles • HOW DID EACH ATTEMPT TO CENTRALIZE? • The Capetians • 987 – Hugh Capet count of Paris took the throne • Important Achievements:
Successful Monarchs in France • Philip Augustus • Phillip II • How did he centralize control during his reign?
Successful Monarchs in France • Louis IX King and Saint • Ideal of the perfect medieval monarch • Generous, noble, and devoted to justice and chivalry • How did he try to centralize power?
Successful Monarchs in France • Philip IV Clashes with the Pope • Ruthlessly extended royal power • Tried to collect new taxes from the clergy • Clashed with Boniface VIII • How did they clash? • Avignon Papacy • French pope elected and moved the papacy to Avignon France to ensure French kings can control religion within their own regions
Successful Monarchs in France • What is the Estates General? • Why was it set up? • How is it similar and different when compared to England’s parliament?
Section 2: The Holy Roman Empire & the Church • After Charlemagne’s death empire dissolved into a number of smaller states • 936 Duke Otto I of Saxony took the title of the King of Germany • How was he crowned Holy Roman Emperor?
Section 2: The Holy Roman Empire & the Church • Conflict between Popes and Emperor • Pope Gregory VII • Determined to make the church independent of secular rulers • He banned the practice of lay investiture – when a lay person installed a bishop in office • Emperor Henry IV • Angered by Pope Gregory’s actions the two exchanged insulting notes • How did the pope react? • What is the significance of the 1122 Concordat of Worms?
The Height of Church Power • Innocent III office 1198 • Why is he considered the most powerful pope of the Middle Ages? • Who did he target and why? • Monarchs started to get stronger and centralized their power
Section 3: European Look Outward • The Crusades • Causes: • What were the causes? • What council did Pope Urban II call after Emperor Alexius I ask him for help? • Why did the pope agree to help?
The Crusades • What motivated the Europeans to go fight in the Holy Land?
The Crusades • Who was Saladin? • Who sacked Constantinople and why? • Why did the Europeans lose the Crusades?
The Crusades • Effects of the Crusades on Europe 1. Economic Expansion – how? 2. Increased Power of Monarchs – how, why? 3. The Church – what changed? 4. A Wider World View – how so? 5. Religious Anger turned toward Jews – how, why?
The Reconquista in Spain • What was the Reconquista? • Why did it happen? • What monarchs initiated it? • What were the effects?
Section 4: Learning Literature and the Arts • Medieval Universities • Why did they spring up in the Middle Ages? What were their purpose? • Academic Guilds – what are they? • Cathedrals to train clergy • Student life • What was it like to be a student?
Women and Learning • Women and education • Were women allowed to be educated, why or whynot? • Christine de Pizan • Writer born in Italy moved to the French court • The City of Ladies • Questioned several imaginary characters about men’s negative views on women • What role should women play according to men?
“New Learning” • Many new ideas had originated in ancient Greece but had been lost to western Europeans after the fall of Rome • Spread of learning • Who was responsible for bringing the interest of learning back to the Europeans? • Philosophy • Aristotle taught that people should use reason to discover basic truths • Christians accepted many ideas on faith – clash • To try to resolve conflict – Scholasticism used reason to support Christian beliefs • Resolve conflict between faith and reason • Scholastic thinker Thomas Aquinas – Summa Theologica • Examined Christian teachings in the light of reason • He brought together Christian faith and classical Greek philosophy • Science and Mathematics • Why did science not make many advancements during the Middle Ages?
Medieval Literature • Writings began to appear in the vernacular • Literature Included epics or long narrative poems • Spain’s Poem of the Cid • Dante’s Divine Comedy • Italian poet Dante Alighieri takes the reader through an imaginary journey into hell and purgatory where souls await forgiveness and then his vision of heaven • Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales • Band of English pilgrims traveling to Thomas Becket’s tomb • Characters each have to tell a story
Art and Architecture • Romanesque • What did it look like? • Gothic • What did Gothic Cathedrals look like? • Why did they have stained glass windows? • Illuminated manuscripts • What were they and what was their purpose? • The following slides are taken from a Historyteacher.net ppt
St. Etienne, Bourges, late 12c “Flying” Buttresses
Stained Glass Windows • For the glory of God. • For religiousinstructions.
The Crucifixion • Giotto • 1305 • Tempera onwood andground gold.
Section 5: A Time of Crisis • The Black Death • Causes: • What spread it? • Where did it spread to? • Where was it the most dangerous? • Why?
Life During the Black Death • Why was the Plague so deadly?
Daily Life • Bring Out Your Dead! • Most people died within three days of the tumors appearing • Death rates were so high that the disposal of bodies became an issue • In Italy a group known as the becchini hired themselves out to carry away the dead. • In some families, sick members were left in the homes to die while the rest fled elsewhere • Where could they flee where they may have a chance at surviving?
Medicine • Medicine • People still believed that disease was spread by poisons vapors that corrupted the air • People walked around holding their noses or carrying around flowers • The Faculty of the University of Paris argued that the plague was the result of the conjunction of the planets, Saturn, Mars and Jupiter
Superstitions • Flagellants • Who were they? • What did they do to themselves? • What effect did this have on the spread of the plague? • Why did they do what they did?
Superstitions & Scapegoating • Europeans looked for someone, or something to blame for this horrific plague, such as? • Witches • Women were accused of being witches especially surrounding the death of so many people • They were midwives and also cared for the sick