The High Middle Ages 1050-1450. Chapter 9. Growth of Royal Power in England & France Section 1. Section 1.
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The High Middle Ages1050-1450 Chapter 9
Section 1 Even though, the kings of Europe were at the top of Europe’s society, the nobles and the Church had the power: they had their own courts, collected their own taxes, and fielded their own armies. Kings used different methods to centralize power, including strengthened ties with the middle class. This way the townspeople supported the king, who imposed peace and unity needed for trade.
Section 1 When Edward the Confessor died without a heir, three men claimed they were the king, so they went to war. After the Battle of Hastings in 1066, William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy, became king with the backing of the pope. The date of 1066 is important in English history. William’s victory meant that the Normans, rather than the Anglo-Saxons, would rule England, which influenced the English language, culture and traditions.
10/4/1066, William of Normandy defeated King Harold of England at the battle of Hastings • William was then crowned King of England • Norman knights received land as a fief and swore allegiance to the king • Marriage of French & Anglo-Saxons led to a new English culture • Normans adopted Anglo-Saxon institutions = office of sheriff, census called Domesday Book • William further developed taxation & royal courts
William I, the Conqueror Brought Norman Feudalism To England
Section 1 In 1085, in order to ascertain the extent of his new dominions and to improve taxation, William commissioned all his counselors for the compilation of the Domesday Book. The book was a survey of England's productive capacity similar to a modern census. The book listed every castle, field, and pigpen in England. The book help Williams and future England Kings to develop an efficient system of tax collecting
Section 1 William’s successors continued to increase royal authority. In the area of finance, they created exchequer, or treasury, to collect taxes. It included fees, fines, and other dues. In his deathbed, William divided his succession for his sons: the conflictive elder son Robert received the Normandy's dukedom, as Robert III. William Rufus (third son) was next king, as William II. The youngest son Henry received 5,000 pounds, which would be used to buy land. He then became King Henry I of England after William II died without a successor.
Section 1 Henry I died in 1135 of food poisoning. He is famed for holding the record for the largest number of acknowledged illegitimate children born to any English king, with the number being around 20 or 25. The succession for the throne was problematic. His only legitimate son was killed. One of his daughters, Matilda, was to take the throne as Queen, however, she got married with an enemy of the Normans, so his nephew was to claim the throne. At the end, her son, Henry II, was proclaimed the King of England in 1154.
Henry II • Henry II enlarged English monarchy • Expanded the power of the royal courts & king’s power/increased # of criminal cases tried on the king’s court • Common law (was a legal system based on customs and court rulings)replaced law codes across the kingdom • Tried to control Church but failed • Thomas Beckett, archbishop of Canterbury said only Roman Catholic Church could try clergy • Four knights murdered Beckett, Henry was outraged & backed down
Section 1 Jury (a group of men sworn to speak the truth) trials were initiated to end the old Germanic trials by ordeal or battle. The early juries determined which cases should go to trial and were the ancestors of today’s grand jury. The process of strengthening the royal courts, however, yielded an unexpected controversy. The church courts instituted by William the Conqueror became a safe haven for criminals of varying degree and ability. Henry wished to transfer sentencing clergy cases to the royal courts, as church courts merely demoted people but didn’t give them punishments for crimes
Section 1 Thomas Beckett, Henry's close friend, was named Archbishop of Canterbury in June 1162 but distanced himself from Henry and vehemently opposed the weakening of church courts. Beckett fled England in 1164, but through the intervention of Pope Adrian IV (the lone English pope), returned in 1170. Exasperated, Henry publicly conveyed his desire to get rid of the Archbishop - four ambitious knights took the king at his word and murdered Beckett in his own cathedral on December 29, 1170. Henry endured a rather limited storm of protest over the incident and the controversy passed. After this, Henry stopped his attempts to regulate the clergy. Becket was honored as a martyr and declared a saint.
Section 1 Many English monarchs clashed with nobles and the Church. Most of the battles started because the kings wanted to increase taxes or impose more royal authority. Henry’s younger son, John reigned from 1199 till his death in 1216. Apart from entering popular legend as the enemy of Robin Hood, he is also known for when he gave in to the nobility and signed Magna Carta, or great charter, a document limiting his power which is popularly thought as an early first step in the evolution of modern democracy.
Magna Carta • English nobles resented the growth of the king’s power/ rebellion was raised against King John • 1215, King John was forced to put his seal on the Magna Carta = feudal document, written recognition that the power of the king was limited • 13th century, under Edward I = English parliament emerged • Parliament = 2 knights from every county, 2 people from every town, and all the bishops & nobles throughout England
John Was Forced To Sign the Magna Carta in 1215
Section 1 John also faced problems with the Church with he wanted to appoint the archbishop of Canterbury, instead of the one pope Innocent III had selected. The pope excommunicated John and placed England under the interdict. To save himself and his crown, John had to accept England as a fief of the papacy and even had to pay a yearly fee to Rome. John’s youngest son, Henry III, became the next king and then his grandson, Edward I
Section 1 Edward I reigned from 1272 till 1307. He was known as Edward the lawgiver because of his legal reforms. It was during his time that Parliament began to meet regularly. And though still extremely limited to matters of taxation, it enabled Edward I to obtain a number of taxation grants which had been impossible for Henry III. This helped create the Model Parliament with representatives of the “common people,” lords, and clergy, which set up the framework for England’s legislature.
English Parliament • Eventually 2 houses were formed • Nobles & church lords formed = House of the Lords • Knights & townspeoples = House of Commons • Parliaments granted taxes & passed laws
Edward I Called a Parliament Of Lords and Commons
Section 1 Unlike the kings of England, monarchs in France did not rule over a unified kingdom. The successors of Charlemagne didn’t have enough power over the different territories that made up France. In 987, the feudal nobles of France elected Hugh Capet, the count of Paris, to be the new king. His lands were smaller than those of many of his vassals; however, he and his heirs slowly increased royal power: they made the throne hereditary, and won support from the Church.
French Kingdom • Kingdom of France was 1/3 of the former Carolingian empire • Hugh Capet was chosen to be king by west Frankish nobles establishing the Capetian dynasty • Capetians had little power & only controlled the land around Paris/ Dukes had more power than kings
Phillip II of Augustus = was the turning point in the French monarchy. Phillip waged war against England & increased his royal land holdings by taking over lands in Normandy (north) and southern France: Maine, Anjou, & Aquitaine, where the pope said heresy had sprung up. He strengthened royal government: he used paid middle-class officials to fill government positions, granted charters to many new towns, and introduced a new national tax. By 1223, Philip had become the most powerful ruler in Europe.
Section 1 In 1226, Louis IX had become the king of France. He was generous, noble, and devoted to justice and chivalry. He was declared a saint less than 30 years after his death. Saint Louis was a very religious man: he persecuted Jews and heretics, and led French knights in two wars against Muslims. He expanded the royal courts, outlawed private wars, and ended serfdom in his lands. By the time of his death in 1270, France was an efficient centralized monarchy.
Section 1 Louis’ grandson, Philip IV, ruthlessly extended royal power. To raise money, he tried to collect taxes from the clergy, but pope Boniface VIII opposed. The pope forbade him from doing so by saying “God had set popes over kings and kingdoms.” Philip threatened to arrest any clergy who did not pay up. Philip sent troops to seize the pope, who escaped but died soon after. The next pope was a Frenchmen who move the papal court to France (Avignon)
Philip IV Called the Estates- General to Raise Taxes
Section 1 During the struggles with the pope, Philip gather French support by creating Estates General in 1302. This group had representatives from all three social classes: clergy, nobles, and townspeople. It was almost like a parliament, but it never had the same role as the English Parliament did, as it didn’t served as a balance of royal power.
Section 2 After Charlemagne’s death, his empire dissolved into a number of separate states. The dukes of Saxony extended their power over German lands. In 936, Duke Otto I of Saxony took the title of King of Germany. He worked closely with the Church and took an army into Italy to help the pope defeat rebellious Roman nobles. Otto was crowned emperor and his successors took the title of Holy Roman Emperor
Section 2 German emperor claimed authority over much of central and eastern Europe as well as parts of France and Italy. The rulers of the lands were the emperor’s vassals, which created a conflict to control. Another problem for the emperors was a conflict with the popes over the appointment of Church officials, because the emperors were in charge of deciding who would become bishops and abbots within their realm.
Section 2 Under the pope Gregory VII, the conflict between emperors and the Church got worse. He banned the practice of lay investiture, meaning that the emperor or any other person who didn’t belong to the clergy did not had the right to appoint and install bishops in office, only the pope could do so. Holy Roman emperor Henry IV didn’t agree with the ban and the two men exchanged insulting notes. The pope excommunicated Henry in 1706.
Section 2 Henry was forced to make peace with the pope, who knew that he was doing so to keep his throne and please his people, but as a priest, he had to forgive a “confessed sinner.” In later years, Henry took revenge by forcing the pope into exile when he led an army to Rome. The conflict about who was to named and invest the bishops dragged for almost 50 years. In 1122, both sides accepted a treaty known as the Concordat of Worms, which stated that the Church had the sole power to elect and invest bishops with spiritual authority.
Section 2 During the 1100s and 1200s, ambitious German emperors tried to master Italy, so conflict with popes and with the wealthy towns of northern Italy started. The emperor Frederick I, called Barbarossa, dreamed of building an empire from the Baltic to the Adriatic. He arranged the marriage of his son Henry with the heiress of Sicily and southern Italy, Constance. That way German emperors had more power over Italian affairs.
Section 2 The grandson of Frederick I, Frederick II was the new king. He spent little time in Germany, instead he pursuit his ambitions in Italy. German nobles grew more independent and Germany weakened by his inattention. Germany didn’t achieve unity for another 600 years. Pope Innocent III, who took office in 1198, tried to restore the prestige of the Holy See in Italy, where it had been overshadowed by the power of the emperor Henry VI. Innocent clashed will all the powerful rulers of his day and in most cases came out ahead.
Section 2 He excommunicated King John of England, Philip II of France when he tried to unlawfully invalidate his marriage (annul), and even the Holy Roman emperor Frederick II felt the anger of the pope. In 1209, Innocent launched a brutal crusade, or holy war, against the Albigensians in southern France and northern Spain. The Albigensians wanted to go back to the early Christian Church. Tens of thousands of people were killed in the Albigensian Crusade.
Section 3 During Europe’s Middle Ages, Islam had given rise to a brilliant new civilization that stretched from Spain to India. Muslim traders and scholars spread goods and ideas and technologies even further. India was politically divided. Hinduism and Buddhism flourished, and wealthy princes built stunning temples and palaces. In West Africa, the Soninke people were building the great trading empire of Ghana.
Section 3 China had a strong central government. Under the Tang and Song dynasties, China’s culture flourished and influenced neighboring peoples. The Chinese made amazing advances, inventing paper, printing, and gunpowder. In the Americas, Mayas had cleared rain forests and built cities dominated by temples. In Peru, Native Americans were building empires and creating great works of art. These civilization remained outside the contacts that were taking among Africans, Europeans, and Asians
Section 3 The Crusades were a series of military campaigns against the Muslims of the Middle East. In 1076, the Muslims had captured Jerusalem - the most holy of holy places for Christians. However, Jerusalem was also extremely important for the Muslims as Muhammad, the founder of the Muslim faith, had been there and there was great joy in the Muslim world when Jerusalem was captured. The motive of the Crusades were to free the Holy Land from the control of non Christians.
Crusades • 11th & 13th centuries, European Christians carried out a series of military expeditions to take back the holy land from the Muslims • Seljuk Turks won the battle of Manzikert & threatened Constantinople • Crusades began when Pope Urban II responded to the request of Alexius I to liberate Jerusalem & Palestine • Urban II called for crusades @ infidels • Infidels were the non believers = Muslims, Jews
Alexius I Asked For Help and Urban II Called For the First Crusade
Section 3 The First Crusade was an attempt to re-capture Jerusalem. After the capture of Jerusalem by the Muslims in 1076, any Christian who wanted to pay a pilgrimage to the city faced a very hard time. Muslim soldiers made life very difficult for the Christians and trying to get to Jerusalem was filled with danger for a Christian. This greatly angered all Christians. Byzantine emperor Alexius I - feared that his country might also fall to the Muslims as it was very close to the territory captured by the Muslims. Alexius called on the pope - Urban II - to give him help.
Section 3 In 1095, Urban spoke to a great crown at the Council of Clermont in France. He called for a war against the Muslims so that Jerusalem was regained for the Christian faith. Those who volunteered to go to fight the Muslims cut out red crosses and sewed them on their tunics. The French word "croix" means cross and the word changed to "croisades" or crusades. The fight against the Muslims became a Holy War.
Section 3 The Crusaders cut down anybody they could and the streets of Jerusalem were ankle deep in blood. The rest of the Crusaders got into the city when the gates were opened. The slaughter continued and the Crusaders "killed whoever they wished". Those Muslims who had their lives spared, had to go round and collect the bodies before dumping them outside of the city because they stank so much. The Muslims claimed afterwards that 70,000 people were killed and that the Crusaders took whatever treasure they could from the Dome of the Rock.