Major Eras of European History • Ancient: Greece/Rome • Middle Ages: Everything in between (500 – 1500) • Modern: 1500’s and on
Periodization of the Middle Ages • Early Middle Ages: 500 CE – 1000 CE • High Middle Ages: 1000 CE – 1250 CE • Late Middle Ages: 1250 CE - 1500 CE
Timeline • Take 5 minutes to read over your “Brief Timeline of the Catholic Church in Western Europe during the Middle Ages” • Is there anything that’s “jumps out” at you?
Fall of the Roman Empire • Rome was the most powerful empire the world had ever seen.
Roman Legacy • Art & Architecture • Arches, Domes, Vaults • Aqueducts • Roads • Tech & Science • New building materials
Roman Legacy cont’d 3) Literature/Language • Romance = Roman • Romantic languages 4) Law • Roman Republic influence USA • Senators • ‘Equality’ • Democracy
A Disclaimer! • Religion is a large part of the place and time we are studying. • For many people it is a large part of their lives in this place and time. • What are some strategies to ensure that you can voice your opinions and be sensitive to others? • If you ever feel uncomfortable or offended by something someone has said…Please let me know.
Things you need to know: • Diocletian (51st Emperor 284 to 305 CE) split the Roman empire in two. • He thought the empire was too big and it needed a second ruler • Historical significance = Byzantium Empire (East) • Byzantium Empire would last about 1000 years longer than the Western Roman Empire • Constantine (Emperor from 306 to 337 CE) • Unified the Roman Empire under Christianity • Built a new imperial residence at Byzantium (it was named Constantinople in his honor after his death and is the capital for the Eastern Roman Empire for a thousand years) • Edict of Milan: 313 CE • Legalizes Christianity in the Roman Empire, reversing Diocletian’s policy of persecution. • This has lasting impacts on Europe. “Wherefore, for this our indulgence, they ought to pray to their God for our safety, for that of the republic, and for their own, that the commonwealth may continue uninjured on every side, and that they may be able to live securely in their homes” Why did Christianity spread so easily?
The Medieval Catholic Church • Filled the power vacuum left from thecollapse of the classical world. • Monasticism: a religious way of life that involves renouncing worldly pursuits to fully devote one's self to spiritual work • St. Benedict – Benedictine Rule ofpoverty, chastity, and obedience. • provided schools for the children ofthe upper class. • inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war. • libraries & scriptoria to copy books and illuminate manuscripts • monks and missionaries to the barbarians. [St. Patrick, St. Boniface]
Role of Church in Middle Ages Never was there a time when the Church was so powerful in Western Civilization. The Church was led by popes. Priests and nuns converted, gave care to people
Role of Church • Monks were spiritual leaders (obviously) • They lived in monasteries that acted like trade schools and YMCAs
Role of Church They spent years transcribing the Bible since the printing press wasn’t used in Europe yet.
Role of Church Since there were no strong empires or kingdoms the Church was one organization that had respect and power. Popes were more powerful than kings!
Illuminated Manuscripts • Text is supplemented with decoration (initials, borders, decorations) • This actually aided with the preservation of literature from Greece and Rome • It was a way of aggrandizing ancient documents thus aiding their preservation in an era when new ruling classes were no longer literate
Sacraments • Efficacious signs of grace, instituted by Christ and entrusted to the Church, by which divine life is dispensed to us • 7 Sacraments: • Baptism (Christening) • Confirmation (Chrismation) • Holy Eucharist • Penance (Confession) • Anointing of the Sick (Last Rites) • Holy Orders • Matrimony (Marriage)
Theoretically speaking it makes little difference as to which language is used in the Mass. God understands all languages. In practice, however it does make a difference • The people hearing the words in their own language without any explanation, become self interpreters; this is nothing more than Protestantism
The Power of the Medieval Church • Bishops and abbots played a large part inthe feudal system. • The church controlled about 1/3 of theland in Western Europe. • Tried to curb feudal warfare • only 40 days a year for combat. • Curb heresies • Crusades • Inquisition • Tithe • 1/10 tax on your assets given tothe church. • Peter’s Pence: 1 penny per person[paid by the peasants].
Feudalism • Feudalism: A decentralized form of government that stressed alliances of mutual protection between monarchs and nobles • A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service.
Feudalism (political system) • The kings had lots of land; he gave land to lords in exchange for protection and $. • Lords gave their land to knights in exchange for protection, $. • Knights let serfs work the land and he would protect them. • Serfs got food and shelter. • Thus, each person had rights and responsibilities
Manoralism (economic system) • For safety and for defense, people in the Middle Ages formed small communities around a central lord or master. Most people lived on a manor, which consisted of the castle, the church, the village, and the surrounding farm land. These manors were isolated, with occasional visits from peddlers, pilgrims on their way to the Crusades, or soldiers from other fiefdoms. Why do you think everyone chose to be isolated?
Life on the Medieval Manor Serfs at work
The System • Fief: A parcel of land with peasants. • Serf: A worker on a fief who was not free. They worked the land in exchange for protection and the right to work the fields. • Vassal: One who enters into mutual obligations with a lord or monarch. • Lord: A high ranking aristocrat
The Road to Knighthood KNIGHT SQUIRE PAGE
Magna Carta • Signed in 1215 • Example of Rule of Law • English King John was a bad king so his nobles forced him to sign it. • Limited powers of king.
Why Feudalism • Feudalism/ Manoralism came from people’s need for protection. Each member had rights and responsibilities. • Cultures interact through wars, such as the Crusades, and trade ideas such as democratic ideas or religious ideas
The Crusades • Thousands of knights and “barbarian” soldiers united under Christianity attacked Muslims and Jews in Turkey and Jerusalem to gain the land for Christians.
Romanesque Archtectural Style • Rounded Arches • Darker, simplistic interiors • Barrel Vaults • Thick Walls • Small windows
Gothic Architectural Style Elaborate, airier interiors Stained-glass windows Flying buttresses • Pointed arches • High, narrow vaults • Thinner walls
Medieval Guilds Guild Hall • Commercial Monopoly: • Controlled membership apprentice journeyman master craftsman • Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece]. • Controlled prices