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BN501 Session 12: Concepts of community. Session outcomes. At the end of this session students will be able to: Introduce and define the concept of a community. Identify what factors make a community healthy Discuss the factors that contribute to a healthy community.

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Session 12: Concepts of community

session outcomes
Session outcomes

At the end of this session students will be able to:

  • Introduce and define the concept of a community.
  • Identify what factors make a community healthy
  • Discuss the factors that contribute to a healthy community.
  • Articulate own understanding of the concepts associated with community and community health.
what is a community
What is a Community?
  • Describe a community.
  • Is there more than one description of a community?
  • Is the concept of a community a reality in today’s world?
  • Do we actually live in a community?
what is a community1
What is a community?
  • What are the requirements of a community?
  • What does any community need to have present?
what is a community2
What is a community?

The term community simply means that which is common. It is defined as a interdependent group inhabiting a common space.

“Hold membership in various population groups on the basis of gender, age, physical capacity or culture”

(McMurray, 2007).

what is a community3
What is a community?

Archer (1985) described three general types of communities:

  • Emotional
  • Structural
  • Functional
what is a community4
What is a community?

“Communities are systems of dynamic, interactive relationships between people and their physical, geographic, personal and social networks. Communities are ecological in that the relationships within the community not only connect people to the community, but give back to the community what it needs to sustain itself, and both sides benefit”

what is a community5
What is a community?

“A community is a social group determined by geographical boundaries and/or common values and interests. Its members know and interact with each other. It functions within a particular social structure and exhibits and creates certain norms, values and social institutions”


Community Assessment Wheel

Figure 10.1

(Francis, Chapman, Hoare & Mills, 2008. p.168)




Safety and





Politics &



Health &

Social Services


community resources
Community Resources
  • Health and social services
  • Education
  • Transport services
  • Recreational facilities
  • Local government
  • Communication (eg. newspaper, magazines, media)

The Community Outcomes of Palmerston North:

  • People have lots of fun things to do
  • People feel safe
  • Palmerston North is attractive, clean and green
  • Businesses grow here and people have lots of job opportunities
  • People have lots of learning opportunities
  • People can move easily around Palmerston North
  • Palmerston North’s physical infrastructure is reliable
  • The community is supportive and people and organisations work together
  • People are well-housed and healthy's-community-outcomes/



Craven, R., F., & Hirnle, C. J. (2009). Fundamentals of Nursing: human health and function. (6th ed.). USA :Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Francis, K., Chapman, Y., Hoare, K., & Mills, J. (2008). Community as partner. Theory and practice in nursing. NSW: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

McMurray, A. (2007). Community health and wellness. NSW: Mosby

National Advisory Committee on Health and Disability. (1998). The social, cultural and economic determinants of health in New Zealand: Action to improve health. Wellington: Author

Percy, K. (2007). Workforce literacy and numeracy skill levels continue to hold NZ business back

Wass, A. (2004). Promoting health. The primary health care approach. (2nd ed). Australia:Elsevier

Whitehead, M., Dahlgren, G., & Gibson, L. (2001). Developing policy response to the inequities in health. A global perspective. Retrieved from

World Health Organisation. (1974).Basic documents (36th ed.). Geneva: Author.

World Health Organisation. (1974). Community health nursing. Report of a WHO expert committee. Geneva: Author. Retrieved from