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  1. SESSION 10 Putting It All Together Chapter 10 Tracey and Morrow Benedictine University

  2. Session 10 Objectives In Session 10, you will: • Review Session 9 content • Review the theories and models presented in Sessions 1-9 • Discuss the acquisition of new schema concerning theoretical foundations of literacy and learning • Discuss positive theories that affect learning and literacy in a practical classroom • Discuss three best practice instructional techniques that can and should be applied in a practical classroom …by reading the slides and completing all activities and assessments presented in Session 10 PPT Benedictine University

  3. Session 9 Review • We completed a post-test reflecting on the theories and models and methods of best practice highlighted throughout EDUC 622 • We shared articles that reflect the implementation of best practice with struggling readers, ELLs, early and content-area literacy learners • We presented our Interview Review where we examined how theory and best practice are illustrated in the practical classroom • Group D presented on Technology, New Literacies, and Professional Development in the Best Practice Briefcase Workshop Benedictine University

  4. Putting It All Together In this session, you will combine all of the theories and models together for a more complete view of literacy and learning: • Early Roots • Behaviorism • Constructivism and Reading • Theories of Literacy Development • Social Learning Perspectives • Information/Cognitive Processing Perspectives, Continued, and State of the Art Benedictine University

  5. Let’s Review! Benedictine University

  6. EARLY ROOTS Early Theories and Models Applicable To Reading (400 B.C.-1899) Benedictine University

  7. MENTAL DISCIPLINE THEORY The mind lies dormant until it is exercised! MIND + EXERCISE = LEARNING Benedictine University


  9. UNFOLDMENT THEORY A natural unfolding of the mind based on individual curiosity and interest! Humm… Mail Arrives I need to buy a baby gift! Susie had a baby! Benedictine University

  10. STRUCTURALISM Understanding the mind through the study of perception! LETTER AND WORD RECOGNITION LEGIBILITY OF PRINT SPAN OF ATTENTION Benedictine University

  11. BEHAVIORISM The Dominant Educational Theory for 50 Years (1900-1950) Benedictine University

  12. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING THEORY This theory exemplifies behaviorism because it focuses on observable changes in behavior and responses to stimuli as demonstrative of learning Benedictine University

  13. CONNECTIONISM Law of Effect “Principle of Reinforcement” • Law of Readiness • Law of Identical Elements • Law of Exercise Benedictine University

  14. OPERANT CONDITIONING THEORY Skinner’s research focused on the use of reinforcement and punishment in behavior “Programmed Learning”-Instruction is broken down into small, successive steps that maximize the likelihood of students’ success and minimize the likelihood of students’ frustration and failure Benedictine University

  15. CONSTRUCTIVISM (1920s-PRESENT) Benedictine University

  16. INQUIRY LEARNING Dewey emphasized the following aspects in students’ learning: THE GROWTH OF THE INDIVIDUAL THE IMPORTANCE OF THE ENVIRONMENT THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER Benedictine University

  17. SCHEMA THEORY People organize everything they know into schemas, or knowledge structures! • Schemas are individualized • Without an existing schema, it is very hard to learn new information on a topic! • The more elaborate the individual’s schema is for any given topic, the more easily he or she will be able to learn new information in that topic area Benedictine University

  18. TRANSACTIONAL / READER RESPONSE THEORY All individuals have 2 responses to text: • “Efferent” Responses • FACT-ORIENTED • “Aesthetic” Responses • PERSONALLY AND EMOTIONALLY BASED • It Is Also Important To Remember Text Connections! TEXT- TO- TEXT TEXT- TO-SELF TEXT –TO- WORLD Benedictine University

  19. PSYCHOLINGUISTIC THEORY • This theory discusses the link between psychology and language • Readers rely on language cueing systems to help the rapidly read text • In addition, readers use their knowledge about language, and the world in general, to drive their thinking as they engage in the reading process which allows them to make predictions Benedictine University

  20. WHOLE LANGUAGE THEORY Benedictine University

  21. METACOGNITION The process of thinking about one’s own thinking Benedictine University

  22. ENGAGEMENT THEORY • Engaged readers are mentally active, intrinsically motivated readers who read frequently and use metacognitive strategies in addition to talking with others about what they are reading and learning! Benedictine University

  23. Online Time! SESS. 10: LARGE GROUP THREADED DISCUSSION - SLIDE 23 Large Group Threaded Discussion: • Schema Theory suggests that we have schemas for everything in our lives • Participate in a Sess. 10: Threaded Discussion – Slide 23 on the following topics: • Describe the way your schema appeared before you took EDUC 622. How developed was your original schema on literacy and learning? • Elaborate upon the new additions to your schema. Did any of your prior knowledge need to be adjusted or changed? • For the threaded discussion, please compare and contrast your prior schema and your present schema • In addition, please explain what new additions you hope to gain in your schema as you progress through this program • Please respond to the initial question/s and to a minimum of two other Threaded Discussion entries You can access your Threaded Discussion Tool from the Table of Contents located on the left of the D2L main window

  24. THEORIES OF LITERACY DEVELOPMENT (1930s-PRESENT) Benedictine University

  25. READING UNTIL AGE 6 Years / 6 Months MATURATION THEORY • Formal reading instruction was withheld from children both at home and at school until children reached the mental age of 6 years and 6 months Benedictine University

  26. THEORY OF LITERACY DEVELOPMENT Benedictine University

  27. STAGE MODELS OF READING Benedictine University

  28. Emergent Literacy In Your Classroom Benedictine University

  29. Family Literacy In Your Classroom Benedictine University

  30. SOCIAL LEARNING PERSPECTIVES (1960s-PRESENT) Benedictine University

  31. SOCIOLINGUISTIC THEORY • Often pre-school children from at-risk communities do notacquire the high-quality oral language foundations, familiarity with Standard English syntax, or the same vocabulary levels, that children from more affluent communities acquire Benedictine University

  32. SOCIO-CULTURAL THEORYBronfenner’s Ecological Model of Human Development Benedictine University

  33. SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM • Children learn as a result of social interaction with others • Development depends on the sign systems (a culture’s language, writing, and counting systems) with which individuals grow up • The Zone of Proximal Development: • The ideal level of task difficulty to facilitate learning is the level at which a child can be successful with appropriate support • Scaffolding: • The assistance that adults and more competent peers provide during learning episodes Benedictine University

  34. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORYApply It In Your Classroom! Benedictine University

  35. CRITICAL LITERACY THEORY The concept of power in relation to literacy learning Benedictine University

  36. INFORMATION/COGNITIVE PROCESSING PERSPECTIVES (1950s-1970s) Benedictine University

  37. INFORMATION PROCESSING THEORIES • This has been the dominant theory of learning and memory for the past 20 years Benedictine University

  38. SUBSTRATA-FACTOR THEORY • The creation of this theory allowed for the beginning of hypothesis-based investigations in reading Benedictine University

  39. RAUDING THEORY:The Components Benedictine University

  40. GOUGH’S MODEL • A “Bottoms Up” Model: The reading process begins when the eye captures the input of each letter from the text Benedictine University

  41. AUTOMATIC INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL • Another “bottoms up” model– • Five major components include: • Visual • Phonological • Episodic, • Semantic Memory • Attention Benedictine University

  42. INTERACTIVE MODEL • A variety of processors converge on the material simultaneously, rather than in a linear process HELP! Benedictine University

  43. INFORMATION/COGNITIVE PROCESSING PERSPECTIVES, cont. (1980s) Benedictine University

  44. INTERACTIVE: COMPENSATORY MODEL • This model is neither top down or bottom up • According to this model, there are 4 text processors that are: • Interactive • Non-linear • Compensatory! • Teach students how to use context clues • Provide instruction on how to be flexible readers Benedictine University


  46. VERBAL EFFICIENCY THEORY • Activities known to strengthen children's oral language include: • Listening to stories read aloud and books on tape • Creating language experience charts • Buddy reading • Engaging in dramatic play and storytelling • Cooking activities Benedictine University

  47. CONSTRUCTION-INTEGRATION MODEL • When readers read, they construct representations, or understandings, of what they have read in their heads Benedictine University


  49. INFORMATION/COGNITIVE PROCESSING PERSPECTIVES State Of The Art (1989-Present) Benedictine University

  50. PARALLEL DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING MODEL • There are four primary processors that are central to the reading process: The Orthographic Processor, The Meaning Processor, The Context Processor, and The Phonological Processor • This model suggests that during the reading process the orthographic processor uses the strength of the connections between letters to activate lettersthat are likely to follow the initially identified letter and to suppress lettersthat are unlikely to follow the initially identified letters QUIET SQUIRREL QUEEN Benedictine University