Building Behavioral Expertise in Your School Session One - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Building Behavioral Expertise in Your School Session One

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  1. Building Behavioral Expertise in Your SchoolSession One Lori Dehart Behavior Consultant Big East Cooperative KEDC

  2. Session Expectations • Our goal is to build behavioral expertise in your school, so you need to: • Attend every session • Bring data, handouts, and laptop each session • Cell phones off or on vibrate • Deliver information to your school • Engage in conversations about behavior • Follow assignments for each session

  3. AGENDA Today: Overview of PBS Overview of Functional Behavior Support Analyze Real Data Competing Pathways Form Tool for Making the Whole Process ABC easy

  4. So How Do You Get From

  5. Functions of Behavior Automatic reinforcement= physical comfort escape-=get out of Tangible = stuff Attention

  6. Functions that behaviors serve

  7. Paradigm Shift • To thinking differently • From the problem is within the child • To the problem is due to a breakdown in the teaching and learning interaction Atlas & Rita-Nelson 2009

  8. What is Positive Behavioral Support? A new way of thinking about behavior Broadens intervention from only one approach - reducing challenging behavior to….. Encompasses multiple approaches: changing systems, altering environments, teaching skills, and appreciating positive behavior

  9. Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~80% of Students

  10. Guiding Principles Human Behavior is important, understandable, and predictable. Human Behavior is malleable or changeable. Human behavior occurs within an environmental context, not in a vacuum. Human behavior is learned and can be taught/affected by manipulating aspects of the environmental context. Source: Crone , D.A. & Horner, R.H., 2003

  11. A Context for Positive Behavior Support • Aredesign of environments, not the redesign of individuals • Develop a Plan that describes what we will do differently • Plan is based on identification of the behavioral function of problem behaviors and the lifestyle goals of an individual Atlas and Rita-Nelson 2009

  12. PBS Includes: • A team process for goal setting • Functional Behavioral Assessment • Behavior intervention plan design, implementation, and evaluation This means everyone will react to the child in the same way.

  13. Implementation Checksheet FBA

  14. Steps for Conducting a FBA • Establishing a Team • Selecting a Target Behavior • Collect Baseline Data • Develop a Hypothesis for the Function of the Behavior (Triangulate the Data to Form a Hypothesis) • Test the hypothesis • Design behavior intervention plans (BIP) • Implement, monitor, evaluate outcomes and refine plan in natural environments

  15. Assumptions Underlying FBA Behavior is learned and serves a specific purpose. Behavior is related to the context within which it occurs.

  16. Diane Diane finishes her class work quickly and correctly. She is allowed to spend the rest of the class period playing her favorite computer math game.

  17. Dawson Dawson finishes his class work quickly and correctly. His teacher gives him more worksheets to complete.

  18. Cheralynn Cheralynn works for a few minutes then makes a rude comment. In response, her teacher sends her into the hallway.

  19. Understanding Behavior • Antecedent: any situation, action, or event that immediately precedes a behavior • Behavior: an observable or measurable act • Consequence: a response, action, or event that immediately follows a behavior

  20. Activity

  21. Learning Key Behavior Principles • Positive reinforcement • Negativereinforcement • Punishment • Extinction

  22. Positive Reinforcement • Positive reinforcement is a means by which teachers can increase the probability that a behavior will occur in the future. A teacher uses positive reinforcement when he or she provides something that is pleasant. Positive reinforcement is often thought of as a reward.

  23. Negative Reinforcement • Negative reinforcement is also a means by which teachers can increase the probability that a behavior will occur in the future. A teacher uses negative reinforcement when he or she removes something that is unpleasant. Negative reinforcement is often thought of as relief from something aversive (e.g., boring class work).

  24. FYI • When you reflect on the concept of reinforcement, do not mistakenly associate the terms positive and negativewith the concepts of good and bad. Rather, keep in mind that these terms refer to the addition or removal of a stimulus or condition in order to achieve a desired response. It might be helpful to think of positive reinforcement as a reward and negative reinforcement as a relief; both result in an increase in the probability that the behavior will reoccur.

  25. Positive Punishment • Positive punishment is a means by which teachers can decrease the probability that a behavior will occur in the future. A teacher uses positive punishment when he or she provides something that is unpleasant.

  26. Negative Punishment • Negative punishment is also a means by which teachers can decrease the probability that a behavior will occur in the future. A teacher uses negative punishment when he or she removes something that is pleasant. "Time-out," for example, is a commonly used form of negative punishment.

  27. Extinction • Extinction refers to the withholding of something that is pleasant in order to eliminate the likelihood that a behavior will occur in the future. Extinction can be thought of as planned ignoring.

  28. Applying Behavior PrinciplesDo you think each teacher achieved what he or she intended?

  29. FYI • When a classroom teacher is confronted by an annoying behavior, he or she may (unknowingly) positively reinforce the child's behavior by giving in to the demand. For example: In order to keep him quiet and stop the behavior, a teacher calls on the student who bounces up and down in his seat yelling, "I know! I know!" However—because he got the attention that he wanted—she is inadvertently reinforcing the behavior and increasing the probability that the student will engage in this behavior in the future.

  30. Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) FBA is a process for gathering information to understand the function (purpose) of behavior in order to develop an effective intervention plan.

  31. When should you consider an FBA? When the behavior… • Could cause injury to the student or others • Is intense or occurs frequently • Places the student at risk for referral to special education or a more restrictive placement

  32. Steps for Conducting a FBA • Establishing a Team • Selecting a Target Behavior • Collect Baseline Data • Develop a Hypothesis for the Function of the Behavior (Triangulate the Data to Form a Hypothesis) • Test the hypothesis • Design behavior intervention plans (BIP) • Implement, monitor, evaluate outcomes and refine plan in natural environments

  33. FYI

  34. Step 1:Establishing a Team

  35. Questions to Address: Who What When Where Why How

  36. Multidisciplinary Team The “Players”: • Student’s teachers (special education, general education) Where interfering behaviors occur • Related service personnel (special-language pathologist, OT, behavioral therapist, psychologist, etc) Those that have regular contact with the student • Paraprofessional(s) Those who work directly with the student • parents

  37. Step 2:Selecting a Target Behavior

  38. Selecting a Target Behavior: Step 2:1 • Target behaviors are challenging behaviors that are having a negative impact on the individual displaying them and/or others • Target behaviors must be defined in ways that are observable and measurable • The next slide shows examples and non-examples of possible target behaviors for students with ASD Scott 2009

  39. Name: David Problem Behavior: Off-task Definition: "Off-task" refers to engaging in activities or conversations that are not part of the teacher-assigned instructional activity. EXAMPLES: walking around the classroom without permission, talking without permission, participating in non-assigned activities. NONEXAMPLES: participating in a cooperative learning activity, raising his hand and waiting to be called on, talking with the teacher about the activity, leaving the assigned area with permission. Replacement Behavior: On-task Definition: "On-task" refers to engaging in teacher-assigned activities or conversations that are part of the instructional activity. EXAMPLES: participating in a class discussion, completing teacher-requested assignments (e.g., worksheets, writing activities), waiting to be called on, seeking clarification about an assignment from the teacher or a peer (with permission). NONEXAMPLES: talking without permission, leaving the assigned instructional area without permission, participating in non-assigned activities.

  40. Defining Behavior • Poor impulse control • Angry, hostile, resentful • Paying attention • Stubborn • Lying on the floor and refusing to move • High pitched screams • Hitting with fist • Kicking over chairs • Completing work • crying

  41. Step 3:Collect Baseline Data

  42. Methods for Conducting FBA Indirect: Ask About Behavior Anecdotal Surveys Notes Interviews Direct(Descriptive): See the Behavior Observational Data collection