What, Where, When, Whom and How – part 2 An Introduction to Project Management Session no 2
Programme Recap and review of session 1 Homework review Quad Charts revisited Stakeholders revisited Risk Analysis – concepts Summary and close
Project Life Cycle • Evaluation Phase (The Wrap-up) • Conception Phase (The Idea) • Definition Phase (The Plan) • Initiation Phase (The Team) PLAN • Implementation Phase (The Work) DO REVIEW
The Quad Chart - Guided Tour NAME/TITLE WHY IS PROJECT BEING DONE? WHAT FOR? WHAT IS THE RESULT? WHO IS PROJECT FOR? WHO WILL BENEFIT (OR NOT)? WHO WILL IT INVOLVE? WHEN ARE WE FINISHED? WHAT CAN BE MEASURED? HOW DO I MEASURE SUCCESS? GOALS! WHAT MAKES THE PROJECT A SUCCESS?
Planning is an iterative process TITLE CUSTOMER OR AUDIENCE PURPOSE (AIMS/OBJECTIVES) (DRIVERS / SUPPORTERS / OBSERVERS) DESIRED END RESULT MEASURES OF SUCCESS (CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS) (STANDARDS / CRITERIA)
Stakeholders vs Audience • The “definition” of stakeholder that we have been using so far is that a stakeholder is “anybody who is affected/impacted by what you are trying to do”. It is usually taken to infer that it primarily includes those people who are affected by the project; and therefore have an interest in it.
Stakeholders – ‘UCCASSDO’ • User • Customer or Client • Consumer • Audience • Supporter • Supplier • Driver • Other
It may be useful at this stage to use the term Audience rather than stakeholder • Using ‘Audience’ might allow us to involve more people. • It allows us to look at people/parties who are affected by/impacted by our project AND those who may not be affected by it……but may be interested in it. • And it might be necessary to consider them
Audience might include • A range of regulatory bodies, • The Local Council and/or councillors • MPs • Environment Agency • Professional bodies • Health & Safety Executive
So we have a slightly revised Quad Chart TITLE PURPOSE AUDIENCE (AIMS/OBJECTIVES) (DRIVERS / SUPPORTERS / OBSERVERS) WHY IS PROJECT BEING DONE? WHAT FOR? WHAT IS THE RESULT? WHO IS PROJECT FOR? WHO WILL BENEFIT (OR NOT)? WHO WILL IT INVOLVE? DESIRED END RESULT MEASURES OF SUCCESS (CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS) (STANDARDS / CRITERIA) GOALS! WHAT MAKES THE PROJECT A SUCCESS? WHEN ARE WE FINISHED? WHAT CAN BE MEASURED? HOW DO I MEASURE SUCCESS? MEASURABLE / UNMEASURABLE QUALITATIVE / QUANTITATIVE
Desired outcomes or critical outcomes for project success? • It’s also useful at this stage to refine our QUAD chart a little more by thinking about Critical Success Factors rather than desired outcomes. • Desired outcomes are less specific. • Critical outcomes are those that are essential for the project to be successful
Quad Chart TITLE PURPOSE AUDIENCE (AIMS/OBJECTIVES) (DRIVERS / SUPPORTERS / OBSERVERS) WHY IS PROJECT BEING DONE? WHAT FOR? WHAT IS THE RESULT? WHO IS PROJECT FOR? WHO WILL BENEFIT (OR NOT)? WHO WILL IT INVOLVE? (DESIRED END RESULT) MEASURES OF SUCCESS CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS (STANDARDS / CRITERIA) GOALS! WHAT MAKES THE PROJECT A SUCCESS? WHEN ARE WE FINISHED? WHAT CAN BE MEASURED? HOW DO I MEASURE SUCCESS? MEASURABLE / UNMEASURABLE QUALITATIVE / QUANTITATIVE
What about ‘thing’s that aren’t critical? • Maybe they are secondary benefits or underlying things - values, passion, ethics?
VALUES WHAT IS THE MOTIVATION? PASSION ETHICS Quad Chart (with 7 boxes) SECONDARY BENEFITS (UNMEASURABLE)
It’s often the underlying values, passion and ethics that are ‘what the project is all about’ or that ‘buys people in’ to it. • Particularly important to consider it.
Homework Review – How was it for you? • Too easy………? • That’s why we need to review our QUAD charts • And consider the audience as well as the stakeholders…
The next stage • Reviewing our QUAD chart • Converting desired outcomes into critical success factors • Broadening out the stakeholders into an audience • Checking that our list of assumptions is still valid and correct
QUAD charts refined • Using a real life example of a project for schools in Hull LEA or we can use one or more of your projects? • We will look at what has been written by the new project manager in each of the four QUAD chart boxes
EXAMPLE QUAD chart Purpose (Aims & Objectives) To develop a strategy for best practice in the use of ICT & E-learning in Hull Schools • To increase & expand the use of ICT in teaching for Hull schools • Develop an ICT based CPD route for Hull teachers • To assist in the raising of attainment through the effective use of ICT and E-learning, including improving student’s attitudes towards learning • To improve school’s retention of teaching staff
Audience (Stakeholders, Customers, Users, Consumers) • Hull LEA • Hull teachers • TCS scheme • University of Hull CASS Dept • University of Hull Computer Science Dept • Parents of pupils • Training providers
Measures of Success (Standards/ Criteria) • Actual changes in classroom practice • Actual achievements in ICT capability • Strategy in place within the LEA • CPD route for all teachers written into the strategy • Eventual improvement in the retention of teachers’ figures • Eventual reflection of improved teaching/learning experience through GCSE/SAT results (long term) • The financial benefits associated with the longer term measures of success • The publication of project/research findings
Desired End Result (Critical Success Factors) - CSFs • To be able to demonstrate ‘real’ change in teachers attitudes/practice towards the use of ICT in classrooms • To have developed a strategy for local and regional implementation • To have received feedback reinforcing the satisfaction of objectives • To be able to disseminate findings
The SMART acronym • Specific • Measurable • Achievable • Realistic • Timebound
The CRAP acronym • Correct (and Clear) • Relevant (and Refined) • Accurate • Precise (and Pragmatic)
TASK 1: Evaluating Critical Success Factors & Measures • Critical Success Factors - are they actually measurable? • Are they SMART? Are CRAP? • Are measures quantitative (using figures) or qualitative? • In what way can they be measured? (+ how?) • Do we have things that are really secondary benefits rather than CSFs? • But first an example
Example using one of the CSFs or we can use one of yours • “to be able to demonstrate a ‘real’ change in teachers attitudes towards the use of ICT in the classroom”. • Is there a measure? • Measure – there is none • Solution – construct a survey of attitudes before and after the implementation of a strategy.
Example using one of the CSFs • “to be able to demonstrate a ‘real’ change in teachersattitudes towards the use of ICT in the classroom”. • Where should the apostrophe be? • Hmm – let us see the next slide
Example using one of the CSFs • “to be able to demonstrate a ‘real’ change in teachers attitudes towards the use of ICT in the classroom”. • Where is the missing apostrophe? • Are we talking about one teacher – teacher’s ? • Are we talking about all teachers – teachers’ ? • It is attitudes not attitude, therefore it’s teachers’.
Example • “to be able to demonstrate a ‘real’ change in teachers’ practice in the use of ICT in the classroom” . • Measure – actual changes in classroom practice. • Solution – establish an ‘as is’ picture of current practices and compare them with practices at a given point in time in future. (and this might be a whole project within itself).
Key question you should ask • A Key question“Is the project a failure without this?”. If the answer is No then it is not a critical success factor. • That’s slightly different from asking “is this necessary for the project to be successful?”
Group Work Exercise • CSFs - are they actually measurable? • Are they SMART? Are they CRAP? • Do the CSFs relate to the rest of the QUAD chart? • Do we have things that are really secondary benefits rather than CSFs? • Are measures quantitative (using figures) or qualitative? • In what way can they be measured? (+ how?) • “Is the project a failure without it?”.
Stakeholders revisited Establishing and Identifying who your stakeholders & audience are. We’ll use audience for this part of the process. • Remember UCCASSDO acronym
UCASSADO acronym • User • Customer or Client • Consumer • Audience • Supporter • Supplier • Driver • Other
Motivation – why bother identifying who our audience is? • Ensures that you don’t miss people that have roles in the project (i.e. those people that need to be informed or involved). • Ensures you take account of their views if you need to. • Which is not quite the same as ensuring you take account of their views if you want to.
Need and want • We (and the various members of the audience and stakeholders) might want our project to do many things. • These things are almost certainly not the same as what we need our project to do. • Re-visit the Quad chart - is it as specific and precise as it could be… • You might not be able to satisfy everyone.
Tools and techniques Categorising your audience • Internal - within the department or organisation. • Upper management • Project team • Groups who might be included e.g. Finance • Groups or individuals with specific knowledge or interest
Tools and techniques Categorising your audience • External – outside of the department or organisation • Clients or customers • Regulatory agencies • Suppliers and subcontractors • The public • Specific ones to your project
Categorising your audience • Drivers – those who have a say in defining the result your project is to achieve. • Supporters – those who help you perform your project. This includes doers and those that authorise resources. (people in Finance?). • Observers – those that are interested in the activities and results of the project, but do not actually have a say in the objectives or how it is done.
Project champion • Person in a high position in the organisation who strongly supports the project. • Very important to have one if at all possible. • Likely to be, but not always, your line manager
Finding a project champion They must have: • Sufficient power and authority to resolve conflicts over resources, schedules and technical issues, • Keen interest in the results your project will produce • A willingness to have their name cited as a strong supporter of your project
When to involve them • Drivers – highest involvement at the conception definition and evaluation stages. • Supporters – moderate involvement at the conception stage. Higher involvement during the rest of the project. Unless supporters are involved in trying to generate income for the project in which case they need high involvement during early stages. • Observers – minimal involvement during the whole the project? Possibly; it depends on your project.
How to involve your audience? • The prime skill required here of the effective project manager is that of excellent communication skills. • One-to-one meetings • Group meetings - Formal and informal written correspondence • Email, telephone correspondence • Marketing publicity
Group work Categorise Your Audience • Categorise audience as internal or external • Categorise audience as a driver, supporter or observer • Include additional individuals / groups that might have been missed • Is there a clear project champion?
Tool & Technique STAKEHOLDER ANALYSISA more detailed version The identification of a project's key stakeholders, an assessment of their interests and the ways in which these interests affect the project and its viability.
Classifying stakeholders Stakeholders = persons, groups, or institutions with an interest or interests in a project. A stakeholder may not necessarily be involved/included in the decision making process. (i.e. we are now including audience as part of the stakeholders) Primary stakeholders = those who are ultimately affected either positively (aka winners or beneficiaries) or negatively (losers). Secondary stakeholders = the intermediaries or possible the Audience
Why carry out a stakeholder analysis? • Draws out the interests of stakeholders in relation to the problems which the project is seeking to address. • Identifies conflicts of interest and potential conflict. VERY important! – Need & Want ! • Identifies viability and impact other than in pure financial terms (includes social not just economic factors). VERY important; but often ignored. • Helps provide an overall picture • Helps identify relationships between different stakeholders - helps possible coalition.
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS - HOW TO 1Draw up a stakeholder table identifying who the stakeholders are. 2 Assess each stakeholder's importance and their relative power/influence. • E.g high importance but low influence, or low importance but high influence. • Can rank/rate each stakeholder's importance from 0 (zero importance) to 10 (vital). • Could rank from A to Z