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Conceptual and Relational Issues in Academic Advising Compass Project Learning Community Meeting Tom Brown April 23, 2010 www.tbrownassociates.com tom@tbrownassociates.com. The context for this session: A continued focus on student learning, engagement and success. Shift in emphasis….

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slide1

Conceptual and Relational Issues in Academic AdvisingCompass ProjectLearning Community Meeting Tom BrownApril 23, 2010www.tbrownassociates.comtom@tbrownassociates.com

shift in emphasis

Shift in emphasis….

1970s and 80s Access

1980s and 90s Retention

1990s forward SuccessAlfredo de los Santos Arizona State University

a continuing shift

A continuing shift….

Teaching

Learning

Student Success

Vincent Tinto, Syracuse University, 2007

slide6

We recognize that student success is more than just graduation; it is the demonstration of achievement and the sense of accomplishment that gives students options beyond graduation.BSC Project Compass Proposal

student success

Student Success

Academic achievement

Engagement in educationally purposeful activities

Satisfaction

Acquisition of desired knowledge, skills and competencies

Persistence

Attainment of educational objectives

Post-college performance. George Kuh & Associates, 2007

slide8

Faculty members, whose first priority is excellence in teaching, are committed to working closely with students as instructors, academic advisers, and mentors….ECSU Fulfilling The Mission

slide9

Academic Advisors:

Lights in the Labyrinth

slide10

Academic advising is the onlystructured activity on campus in which all students have the opportunity for on-going one-to-one interaction with a concerned representative of the institution.Wes Habley, ACT

triad for student success
TRIAD FOR STUDENT SUCCESS

ComprehensiveSupportPrograms

High Quality Teaching

Developmental

Academic Advising

slide13

No student service is mentioned in retention research more often as a means of promoting student persistence than academic advising.The Strategic Management of College Enrollments Hossler and Bean, 1990

slide14

Quality interaction with faculty seems to be more important that any other single college factor in determining minority student persistence.Levin and Levin 1991

slide15

Making the Most of CollegeGood advising may be the single most underestimated characteristic of a successful college experience. Richard Light, 2001

slide16

Research has shown that advising improves student retention rates through the establishment of relationships with faculty or staff members who help students to clarify their academic and career goals. Noel Levitz 2006

slide17

Next to the quality of instruction, academic advising is consistently the next most important area of the college experience to students.Five Year Trend Study- National Student Satisfaction Report Noel Levitz 2006

slide18

If faculty and staff were knowledgeable about retention strategies and the needs of FFMI students, they would work to meet those needs.LSC Project Compass Proposal

three interventions with greatest impact on student retention in 4 year public colleges
Three interventions with greatest impact on student retention in 4-year public colleges
  • Academic advising—integrating advising into first year programs, advising specific populations.
  • First-year programs—first year seminars, learning communities, etc.
  • Learning support—required developmental coursework, tutoring, comprehensive learning assistance.
slide20

The more interaction students have with faculty and staff, the more likely they are to learn effectively and persist toward achievement of their educational goals.

academic advisors can mediate the gap between student experiences and their expectations
Academic advisors can mediate the gap between student experiences and their expectations.
slide22

The Status of Academic AdvisingSixth National Survey 20042122 Institutions RespondingACT National Academic Advising Association (NACADA)

slide23
Faculty continue to be the primary deliverers of academic advising.6th National Survey on Academic Advising, 2004
slide24

Too often faculty members are left to sink or swim when it comes to effective student advising—they are blamed for something they lack the professional training to do.Dr. Yolanda Moses President, AAHEFaculty Advising Examined, 2003

slide25

Most faculty report having had little or no training or other preparation prior to being assigned advisees on their campusesBrownSurvey of Faculty, 2001-2009

slide26

When I first began to advise, I had adequate preparation and training. (n=1570)Strongly agree/agree 30%Disagree/strongly disagree 53%Brown Survey of Faculty, 2001-2009

adequate preparation and training

Adequate preparation and training?

I began getting advising folders in the campus mail even before I was actually an advisor. No one told me why I was getting them or what to do with them…. Brown Survey of Faculty, 2001-2009

adequate preparation and training1

Adequate preparation and training?

I had no advising preparation at all. I learned by trial and error….Brown Survey of Faculty, 2001-2009

lowest ratings for advising program effectiveness six th national survey on academic advising 2004

Lowest Ratings for Advising Program EffectivenessSixth National Survey on Academic Advising (2004)

1997 2004

8. Implementing training program for advisors 2.7 3.05

9. Evaluating effectiveness of advising program 2.63 2.77

10. Evaluating effectiveness of advisors 2.68 2.76

11. Rewarding good advisor performance 2.16 2.42

5-Very effective 4-Effective 3-Neutral

2-Ineffective 1-Very Ineffective

triad for advising excellence
TRIAD FOR ADVISING EXCELLENCE

Assessment

And Evaluation

Recognition &

Reward

Advisor Development

slide31

Many key competencies are developed after educators arrive on campus. Therefore, colleges must assume the responsibility for teaching and developing their own educators to enhance student learning inside and outside the classroom by providing professional development programs.Brown & Ward, 2007

slide32

LSC will use Project Compass to design and implement professional development that provides faculty and staff with the resources they need to prepare every student for success…LSC Project Compass Proposal

slide33

Engage Adjunct FacultyDerek Bok stresses the importance of ensuring that adjunct faculty be properly trained in order for campuses to attain their educational goals…Our Underachieving Colleges Derek Bok, 2006

slide34

The Center for Education Excellence will facilitate formation of a blended community of part-time and full-time faculty related to best practices for advising, tutoring, teaching and learning at Eastern…ESCU Faculty/Staff working Group

redefining academic advising from prescriptive to developmental from an event to a process
Redefining academic advising: From prescriptive to developmental. From an event to a process.
slide36

1960s DefinitionAcademic Advising“A task concentrated during registration and enrollment that consists mainly of aiding students in the selection of courses.”Handbook of College Administration Asa Knowles 1965

slide37

Academic Advising… a systematic process based on a close advisor student relationshipintended to aid students in achieving their personal, educational, and career goals….focuses on helping students to acquire skills and attitudes that promote their intellectual and personal development. assists students to make full use of campus and community resources in the process.Developmental Academic Advising Winston, Miller, Ender, Grites & Associates. 1984

slide38

Faculty and staff who work as advisors assist students with advising or degree program questions, goal setting, course registration, referral to campus resources, and other services designed to contribute to their academic experience.UMPI website

slide39

The Academic Advising Center coordinates the advisement services for the registration process of new and continuing students. The Advisement Center provides students with information and assistance regarding academic-related matters, handles students’ academic appeals for courses outside a student’s major program, and provides academic support services to freshmen, undeclared, and probationary students. ECSU

slide40

Bridgewater State College has a commitment to provide academic advising for every matriculated undergraduate. This program provides each student a minimum of five advising contacts, starting with New Student Orientation, and extending through the first semester of enrollment.

slide41

Quality advising at Lyndon State is a collaborative relationship between a student and an academic advisor [and] empowers students to realize their maximum educational potential. Quality advising helps students clarify life and career goals and provides referrals to campus resources.

slide42

Advising is more meaningful when treated as a teaching process rather than a product.Academic Advising for Student Success: A System of Shared Responsibility Susan Frost. 1991

slide43

Teaching and advising need to be part of a seamless process, sharing the same intellectual sphere, informed by a relatively consistent educational philosophy.Robert M. Berdahl, Historian and President University of California, Berkeley “Teaching Through Academic Advising: A Faculty Perspective.”

shared goals of teaching and advising
Shared Goals of Teaching and Advising
  • Increase knowledge
  • Enhance critical thinking abilities
  • Skills acquisition
  • Increase problem solving abilities
  • Broaden Perspectives
  • Integration of learning: making connections
  • and finding meaning
increase knowledge

Increase Knowledge

Purposes of college and learning

About themselves

About the worlds in which they live and will live their lives

slide46

Advisors teach students to: Value the learning process Put the college experience into perspectiveCore Values National Academic Advising Assn

slide47

Enhance Critical ThinkingAdvisors help students think through short-term decisions and long-range plans, which enables students to take charge of their lives.Empowering Lifelong Learning Arthur Chickering Fall 1994 NACADA Journal

advisors teach students to make decisions core values national academic advising assn
Advisors teach students to make decisions.Core Values National Academic Advising Assn
slide49

Skills AcquisitionAs students frame questions about the future and seek information needed to formulate answers, they practice behaviors and develop skills they will use throughout their lives.Academic Advising for Student Success Susan Frost, 1991

slide50

Problem SolvingThe fundamental purpose of academic advising is to help students become effective agents for their own lifelong learning and development.Chickering, 1994

broaden perspectives

Broaden Perspectives

Learning vs. grades

slide53

Students are afraid: afraid of failing, of not understanding, of having their ignorance exposed or their prejudices challenged, of looking foolish in front of their peers…. Parker PalmerThe Courage to Teach, 1998

slide54

Role of failureThose students who do well in my class aren’t afraid to fail. If they read a problem and don’t instantly know how to do it, they don’t quit or feel embarrassed. They understand that they’re not failing the course because of a failed experiment.Faculty ViewpointUnderstanding University Success, 2003

slide55

Role of CriticismStudents need to be willing to receive a critique of their work without perceiving it as an attack on their integrity, intelligence or creativity. Faculty Viewpoint Understanding University Success, 2003

slide56

Integration of LearningDo Students recognize the value of general education requirements? (n=1555)Strongly agree/agree 21%Disagree/strongly disagree 52%Brown Survey, 2001-2009

slide57

Do Students recognize the value of general education requirements?Major, Major, Major!Students, for the most part, have tunnel vision where their studies are concerned Brown Survey of Faculty, 2001-2009

slide58

Making the Most of CollegeThe most effective advisors ask questions or posed challenges that forced students to think about the relationships between their academic work to their personal lives.Richard Light, 2001

the question students should seek to answer through advising

The question students should seek to answer through advising...

NOT….

“What courses do I need to take?”

the questions students should seek to answer through advising

The questions students should seek to answer through advising...

“How do I want to live my life?”

“What can I do at this college to help me move toward this vision of my future?”

slide63
Big enough questions…What is it you plan to dowith your one wild and precious life?The Summer Day Mary Oliver, 1992
hierarchy of advising
HIERARCHY OF ADVISING

Life goals, values, abilities, interests, limitations

Vocational/career goals

Academic program/Field of Study

Selection of courses

Scheduling classesTerry O’Bannion, 1972, 1994

hierarchy of advising1
HIERARCHY OF ADVISING

Life goals, values, abilities, interests, limitations

Vocational/career goals

Academic program/Field of Study

Selection of courses

Scheduling classesTerry O’Bannion, 1972, 1994

slide66

Academic advising is assisting students to share the responsibility for academic planning with faculty, with students finally being able to find their own answers and use their advisors as sounding boards.Academic Advising for StudentSuccess Susan Frost, 1991

advisor responsibilities
Advisor Responsibilities
  • Help students define and develop realistic goals
  • Identify special needs
  • Connect students to available resources
  • Assist students to plan consistent with their goals, interests, aptitudes & limitations
  • Monitor progress toward goals
  • Discuss linkage between academic preparation and careers
advisee responsibilities
Advisee Responsibilities
  • Gather relevant decision making information
  • Clarify goals, interests, and values
  • Become knowledgeable about programs, policies, requirements and procedures
  • Accept responsibility for decisions
student responsibilities

Student Responsibilities

Build rapport with his/her advisor.

Determine his/her educational goals and make an educational plan that includes courses and out-of-class activities.

Know curriculum requirements and track progress toward graduation.

Follow college policies, procedures (such as add/drop), and deadlines

student responsibilities1

Student Responsibilities

Use advising sessions effectively by making appointments, arriving on time, bringing needed materials, asking

specific questions, and expecting advisors to work with them.

Check campus e-mail at least twice per week and daily during the week registration opens.

slide71

Advisement is a two way streetFaculty suggested that students’ educations cannot be meaningful if they don’t take ownership of their educations…ESCU Self Assessment Report

changing environment changing students 1 st year 2 nd year 3 rd year 4 th 5 th 6 th year

Changing Environment & Changing Students1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th, 5th, 6th Year

Need for Information

Changing Needs for Advising

Need for Consultation

Creamer, 2000

changing environment changing students 1 st year 2 nd year 3 rd year 4 th 5 th 6 th year1

Changing Environment & Changing Students1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th, 5th, 6th Year

Need for Information

Changing Needs for Advising

Need for Consultation

PRESCRIPTIVE DEVELOPMENTAL

Lynch, 1989;Brown& Rivas, 1994; Creamer, 2000

Moving In Moving Through Moving On

Changing Contexts for Advising

changing environment changing students 1 st year 2 nd year 4 th 5 th 6 th year beyond

Changing Environment & Changing Students1st Year 2nd Year 4th, 5th, 6th year & beyond

Need for Information

Changing Needs for Advising

Need for Consultation

PRESCRIPTIVE DEVELOPMENTAL

Lynch, 1989;Brown& Rivas, 1994; Creamer, 2000; Brown, 2006

Moving In Moving Through Moving On

I I/S I/S S/I S

I = College/University faculty, advisors, etc.

S = The student

Changing Contexts for Advising

slide76

Students need the support of advising programs and academic advisors as they make three critical transitions:

Moving into college

Moving through college

Moving on from college

slide77

Students need the support of advising programs and academic advisors as they make three critical transitions:

Moving into college

Moving through college

Moving on from college

slide78
Students who leave college often do so as the result of experiences during the first six weeks…. Astin, Crockett, Tinto
slide79

Students need additional academic advising and planning during their first year…ESCU Strategy #3: Improving First-Year Advising of Project Compass most at- risk students

national drop out rates freshman to sophomore year

National Drop Out RatesFreshman to Sophomore Year

Mean % Overall 34.3

Four-year public MA 30

Traditional (950-1070 SAT mean) 29.5

Liberal (870-990 SAT mean) 35.9

national drop out rates freshman to sophomore year1

National Drop Out RatesFreshman to Sophomore Year

Mean % Overall 34.3

Four-year public MA 30

Traditional (950-1070 SAT mean) 29.5

Liberal (870-990 SAT mean) 35.9

BSC 26 ECSU 26

LSC 47

UMPI 37

slide82

Helping students move into college is far and away the most important task for academic advisors. Professor Arthur Chickering, 1994

slide83

New students make an effective transition to the university community by participating in a first year program. This program encourages academic excellence, creativity, student involvement and self-understanding and fosters a commitment to diversity and civility.ECSU Fulfilling the Mission

progress at bsc first year students of color

Progress at BSC First-year students of color

Cohort yearPersistence Rate Year 1-2

2004 65.2%

2005 67.6

2006 71.0

2007 73.2

2008 80.2

progress at bsc first year students low ses

Progress at BSC First-year students Low SES

Cohort yearPersistence Rate Year 1-2

2004 74.8%

2005 72.1

2006 71.0

2007 77.0

2008 80.8

slide87

Students usually have a realistic understanding about the demands of academic work and what is required to be successful in their classes. (n = 1587)Strongly agree/agree 13% Disagree/strongly disagree 69%Brown Survey of Faculty, 2001-2009

do students understand what is required to be successful in college

Do students understand what is required to be successful in college?

Most of them don’t have a clue! They see college work as an extension of high school, and for most of them high school involved little effort.BrownAdvisingSurvey, 2001-2007

58 reported a a as their average high school grade

58% reported A/A- as their average high school grade.

93% earned a B average or higher.

65% expect to earn at least a B average in college.

2008 CIRP Survey Public Universities

do students understand what is required to be successful

Do students understand what is required to be “successful”?

How many hours did you study during a typical week in your last year of high school?

36% More than 10 hours

51% Five hours or less

44% Less than two hours a week!!CIRP Freshmen Survey Public Universities, 2008

slide91

Students have a realistic understanding of what is required to be successful.My favorite comment from students: “This is way not high school….”BrownAdvising Survey, 2001-2008

slide92

A major part of working with first year students is helping them understand that they’re not in high school anymore…Sam Gorovitz, Professor of Philosophy Former Director, First-Year Programs Syracuse University

slide93
Most students are never taught how to study. We call it the “hidden curriculum.” Marcy Fallon University of Maryland, 2002
preparing for a big test

Preparing for a “big test”

Say a prayer—that’s what I do.

Eat lots of peanut butter or other “brain foods.”

Listen to Enya the night before a test. University of UtahChronicle of Higher Education December 6, 2002

slide95
I have to teach students how to study before I can get to course content…Faculty Member Odessa Community College, 2005
advisor skills
Advisor Skills
  • Listening--Comfortable with silence
  • Open-ended questions
  • Providing clarification and feedback
  • Being positive
  • Self-disclosing
  • Offering options and alternatives
slide97

No one expects advisors to be counselors and tutors. Referrals are best if advisors initiate the connection or coach students about how to make the connection themselves.LSC Self Assessment Report

referral skills
Referral Skills
  • Know how to refer and when
  • Don’t refer too quickly
  • Know referral resources
  • Clarify reasons for referral
  • Explain what referral resource will provide
  • Refer to a specific person
  • Assist in making the appointment
  • Follow-up
slide100
Students referred to one service will use other services without referral…. ESCU Self Assessment Report
slide104

Intrusive advising has been shown to improve the effectiveness of advising, enhance student academic skills and increase retention. Earl, 1987

slide105
Studies have shown that probationary students have higher GPAs when intrusive advising is used.Heisserer & Parette, 2002
slide106

There is compelling evidence regarding the importance students place on the value of intrusive advising relationships in the context of their ability to persist. DeAnna Burt, 2009

slide107

Students who were happiest with their Portfolios of Excellence (POE) experience were those who had a peer mentor who reached out to them to take charge of the connection and where a professional or faculty mentor was easily available.BSC POE Focus Group Report

intrusive advising2

Intrusive Advising

Intrusive advising does not mean “hand holding” or parenting. Rather, it does mean active concern and a willingness to assist students to explore programs and services to improve their skills and motivate them to persist toward their goals.

intrusive advising3

Intrusive Advising

Intrusive advising means taking a personal interest in students and approaching them with an open caring attitude.

A personal relationship with a concerned member of the campus community can reduce the psychological distance that hinders academic integration.

intrusive advising strategies

Intrusive Advising Strategies

Assessment and placement

Mandated orientation programs

Required advising meetings

Learning communities

First-year seminar courses

Early alert systems

slide111

The university will employ intrusive first year advising…ESCU Strategy #3: Improving First-Year Advising of Project Compass most at- risk students

slide112

Academic advising is the onlystructured activity on campus in which all students have the opportunity for on-going one-to-one interaction with a concerned representative of the institution.Wes Habley, ACT

required advising meetings

Required Advising Meetings

Structured content: What should be discussed and when?

What would be discussed at a first advising meeting?

At a meeting three weeks into the first term?

At a meeting following midterms?

Prior to registration for the following term?

At the first meeting of the following term?

early alert systems

Early alert systems

Identify students who are having difficulty and also provide recommended sources of assistance.

These were originally sent to faculty through campus mail, but they are increasingly available in web-based formats.

intrusive advising strategies1

Intrusive Advising Strategies

Midterm grades/progress reports

Supplemental Instruction

Peer Support/Study groups

Clear statements of responsibilities

Advising “contracts”

Mentor/Peer mentor programs

Others??

success commitment determination hard work jaime escalante
SUCCESS=

Commitment

+

Determination

+

HARD WORK Jaime Escalante

success commitment determination hard work time
SUCCESS=

Commitment

+

Determination

+

HARD WORK

Time

slide120

The intrusive model is proactive and seeks to address problems as they emerge, rather than being reactive. Essentially, advisors reach out to help students instead of waiting for students to seek help.University of Minnesota General College