ch 13 the rise of a mass democracy
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Ch. 13: The Rise of a Mass Democracy. Election of 1824 & the “Corrupt Bargain”. 1. Clay supports Adams 2. Clay = Sec. of State =

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election of 1824 the corrupt bargain
Election of 1824 & the “Corrupt Bargain”

1. Clay supports Adams 2. Clay = Sec. of State =

3. Stepping stone to presidency

1. Jackson won

popular vote

  • Felt Clay/Adam

move was planned

john q adams
John Q. Adams

6th President


Democratic Republican

adam s presidency
Adam’s Presidency
  • Some believed he allowed too much political control to be held by elites.
  • Some objected to his support of national economic development on constitutional grounds; via tariffs
    • Adams believed a strong, active central government was necessary.
      • A national university.
      • An astronomical observatory.
            • A naval academy.
  • Many Americans saw Adams’ vision of a might nation led by a strong president as a threat to individual liberties and issue of slavery.
adam s presidency1
Adam’s Presidency
    • His land policies gave westerners another reason to dislike him.
  • He attempted to curb speculation for public lands  his opponent accused him of denying their individual rights and freedoms to expand westward
  • He supported the land rights of Native Americans against white settlers.
    • 1825  govt. officials negotiated a treaty with a group of Creek Indians to cede their land rights to GA.

The Creek Indians appealed to Adams to renounce the treaty.

Congress sided with the governor of GA.

the new popular democratic culture
The New Popular Democratic Culture
  • Recognition name of the game
  • Parades and dirty tricks
  • Politicians out in communities
  • Party loyalties
  • Newspaper helped the process
  • Serious mudslinging!
election of 1828
Election of 1828

- Popular democracy at it’s finest -Man of the people vs. the aristocracy

- All regions unite to support him

jackson anything but common
Jackson: Anything but Common
  • Rags to riches
  • Military hero

a. Revolutionary War

b. War of 1812

3. Undemocratic – “Old Hickory”

a. Hated natives

b. Slave owner

4. Little political experience


to the victor belong the spoils
“To the victor belong the spoils”

“Jackson’s Kitchen Cabinet”

issue with tariffs
Issue with Tariffs
  • Tariff of 1816  on imports of cheap textiles.
  • Tariff of 1824  on iron goods and more expensive woolen and cotton imports.
  • Tariff of 1828  higher tariffs on imported raw materials [like wool & hemp]. Aka “Tariff of Abominations”
    • Supported by Jacksonians to gain votes from farmers in NY, OH, KY.
    • The South alone was adamantly against it.
      • As producers of the world’s cheapest cotton, it did not need a protective tariff.
      • They were negatively impacted  American textiles and iron goods [or the taxed English goods] were more expensive!
      • South doesn’t manufacture; therefore, they have to buy those needed products at a higher price. No bueno!
the nullification crisis
The Nullification Crisis

1. Tariffs & Sectionalism:

Who’s for? Who’s against?

2. North

a. Supported by merchants

b. Increases sales of American made goods

3. South

a. Feared tariff retaliation on cotton

b. Luxury goods prices would increase

4. Tariff of Abomination (1828) a. Supported by North & Jackson

b. South – unconstitutional; hardest hit

c. May pass other unconstitutional laws

the nullification crisis1
The Nullification Crisis
  • Nullification Doctrine…

a. Protects rights of minority (south)

b. Is a threat to national unity (AJ)

c. The S.C. Exposition: Pamphlet proposing states nullify tariff of 1828; Written by VP J.C. Calhoun

  • Force Bill

Allowed gov’t to collect taxes at gun point since S.C. refused

  • Tariff of 1833, proposed by Henry Clay, gradually lowers tariffs
sectional leaders
Sectional Leaders
  • Daniel Webster

Henry Clay North


John Calhoun


indian removal 1830
Indian Removal(1830)
  • Policy of assimilation and relocation, by force if necessary.
  • treaties: mostly underhanded
  • Cherokee

a. Most assimilated

b. Cherokee Nation v. Ga & Worcester v. Ga.

i. as dependent nations, states cannot make natives give up there lands

ii. Jackson ignores the verdict and supports the states

c. Trail of Tears (1838)

Demonstrated the unfairness of majority rule

the bank war 1832
The Bank War (1832)
  • Function of Second Bank of the U.S:
    • Held gov’ts money
    • Sold bonds
    • Gave commercial loans
    • Controlled state banks;
      • repaid by state banks w/ hard currency
  • Problem?

a. No national currency =

    • Too many different currencies at different values
    • Too much power
    • Still a private institution
the bank war
The Bank War
  • Opponents to banks

a. Farmers/urban worker

      • restrict loans
      • Call in loans (the loans need to be repaid sooner) = recession

b. Pres. Jackson

      • Unconstitutional
      • Banks harmful to states rights
      • Banks worked for the elites
      • Vetoed bank charter
      • Helped in election 1832
      • Favored “pet banks”= state banks

Jackson removes gov’t money from US bank = death of the National bank.

the bank war1
The Bank War
  • LTC of nonrenewal of bank charter
    • Ended Clay’s American system
    • Laissez-faire economics: gov’t does not get involved with business; let supply and demand control the economy
    • Permanent two party system opposition
    • Banks at state level = too much speculation and credit
Opposition to the 2nd B.U.S.

“Soft”(paper) $

“Hard”(specie) $

  • state bankers feltit restrained theirbanks from issuingbank notes freely.
  • supported rapid economic growth & speculation.
  • felt that coin was the only safecurrency.
  • didn’t like any bankthat issued banknotes.
  • suspicious of expansion &speculation.
The Bank & the 1832 Election
  • Jackson saw Biddle’s pushing forward a bill to renew the Bank’s charter earlier as an attempt to block his re-election!
    • Biddle & his associates preferred Clay.
    • Jackson refused to sign the bill to re-charter.
      • The Bank is trying to destroy me, but I will destroy it!
    • Jackson drops Calhoun and runs with Martin Van Buren.
    • BUT, both parties [Democrats & Whigs] had contradictory positions regarding their party principles, to many of the issues of the day!
Positions on the Key Issues of 1832

National Republicans


  • Felt the widening gap between rich and poor was alarming.
  • Believed that bankers, merchants, and speculators were “non-producers” who used their govt. connections to line their own pockets.
  • Govt. should have a hands-off approach to the economy to allow the little guy a chance to prosper.
  • For Indian removal.
  • Oppose tariffs.
  • States’ rights.
  • Oppose federal support for internal improvements.
  • Opposed the National Bank.
  • Less concerned about the widening gap between rich and poor.
  • Opposed “liberal capitalism” because they believed it would lead to economic chaos.
  • Strong national govt. to coordinate the expanding economy was critical.
  • Opposes Indian removal.
  • Favored tariffs.
  • Supported a National Bank.
The Specie Circular (1836)
  • Speculators created “wildcat banks” that fueled runaway inflation.
  • So, buy future federal land only with gold or silver.
    • This move shocked the system.
  • Jackson’s goal  to curb land speculation.
Results of the Specie Circular
  • Banknotes loose their value.
  • Land sales plummeted.
  • Credit not available.
  • Businesses began to fail.
  • Unemployment rose.

The Panic of 1837!

the whigs the election of 1836
The Whigs & the Election of 1836

Martin Van Buren


William Harrison


1. Democrats

Think TJ & Democratic-Republicans

Small farmers

South and west


James Polk

Van Buren


Think Hamilton and Federalists

Clays American System


Transportation systems


Strong gov’t; intervention

Religion and self-discipline important

Henry Clay

Zachary Taylor

William H. Harrison

panic of 1837
Panic of 1837
  • Causes
    • End of 2nd national bank
    • Speculative boom esp. by foreign investors
    • Too many new loans at state level not backed by specie (gold/silver)
    • Contraction of credit by foreign investors; called in loans
    • Price of cotton and grains increases
    • Too much paper money
    • Implementation of the specie circular
  • Trickle effect of any recession?


  • Van Buren passes Independent Treasury Bill; a banking system independent of the federal government = what will become of the Federal Reserve System
americans in texas
Legal settlement by Amer. (conditional)Stephen Austin

a. Formal contracts

b. Amer. to become Mexican citizens

c. convert to Catholicism

d. Slavery allowed

2. Pop: more Amer. than Mex.

3. Mex. Gov’t turns on Amer.

Outlaws slavery

Impose taxes

Increase anti-Mexsentiments

1836: Texans declare independence

Americans in Texas!
americans in texas1
6. “Remember the Alamo!”

1836 defeat of Americans at the Alamo by Santa Anna

Americans redeem themselves in the spring of 1836 and win over Gen. Santa Ann

Treaty of Velasco w/Gen. Santa Anna = border at Rio Grande; Mex. Congress rejects it

Republic of Texas 1836-1845; slavery an issue for statehood

Statehood: Dec. 1845

Americans in Texas!
campaign of 1840
80% voter turnout

Reached out to everyday people

Was vague re: stance on issues of the day

Dies one month into presidency




Van “Ruin”


Campaign of 1840
the expansion and limits of suffrage
The Expansion and Limits of Suffrage
  • Western expansion =
    • More states = more opportunities for voter participation
    • Changing from traditional voting structure
  • Able to fight but not vote. Say whaaat!!
  • By 1840, 90% adult male allowed to vote
  • “Time of the common man?”
  • More voting than in any other country; landless and poor able to vote
  • Two-Party System

Whigs (later the Republicans) and Democrats; both stem from the Jeffersonian Republican