democracy on the african continent colonialism tribalism and the future
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Democracy on the African Continent: Colonialism, Tribalism and the Future. Country Focus: Nigeria. Democracy . Is democracy an instrument? A tool for achieving value based goals? Human rights Justice Is democracy dependent on the emergence of stable, diversified economies?

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democracy
Democracy
  • Is democracy an instrument? A tool for achieving value based goals?
    • Human rights
    • Justice
  • Is democracy dependent on the emergence of stable, diversified economies?
    • What is the role of an independent civil society?
status liberal democracy commitment
Status – Liberal Democracy Commitment:
  • Benin
  • Botswana
  • Mali
  • Madagascar
  • Mauritius
  • Namibia
  • South Africa
country status economic reform multi party elections
Country Status: Economic Reform, Multi-party Elections
  • Burkina Faso
  • Malawi
  • Mozambique
  • Senegal
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • Zambia
country status development without democracy
Country Status: Development without Democracy
  • Burundi
  • Eritrea
  • Gabon
  • Gambia
  • Niger
  • Ethiopia
country status near collapse failed
Country Status: near collapse ?? “failed” ??
  • Angola ???
  • Cameroon
  • Chad
  • Congo
  • Nigeria ???
  • Kenya
  • Sierra Leone
  • Somalia
  • Sudan
  • Zimbabwe
  • http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2009/06/22/2009_failed_states_index_interactive_map_and_rankings
economic political liberalization
Economic & Political Liberalization
  • Is democratization the only solution to systemic political crisis?
  • Are there economic alternatives beyond liberal market economies?
  • Does democracy spring from economic and social pluralism?
    • For some this is indeed the true explanation for the global spread of democracy.
    • How would these scholars address China?
    • Clearly there is a connection but it is not necessarily causal (Thus, liberal economies may be a necessary condition of democratization but they are clearly NOT sufficient conditions).
western models applied to africa
Western models applied to Africa?
  • Western policymakers handicapped by their fundamental misunderstanding of African nations, the conflicts, the needs, wants, demands of citizens.
  • Equivalent to statement “Ronald Reagan’s foreign policy caused the collapse of the Soviet Union”.
  • Democratic formation is not linear.
history and political culture decolonization and nationhood
History and Political Culture: Decolonization and Nationhood
  • “The scramble of Africa”
  • Decolonization and the creation of national borders for independence occurred quickly and according to the convenience of colonial powers.
  • Result is a continent-wide structure of countries whose citizens have little reason to identify with one another (nationhood)
    • Cultural, economic, environmental, realities were ignored
    • Today extremely diverse groups of people must co-habit as “citizens”
    • Significant barrier to growth of a common identity (nation)…no “glue”, no common culture.
civil society in africa
Civil Society in Africa?
  • The autonomous sphere between the state and the family or individual. This sphere limits governmental action (stops the entropy).
  • Artificial national borders enhance cultural and linguistic disunity…making it virtually impossible for an “autonomous sphere” to emerge.
    • Some local level groups: age, ethnicity, religion, self-help, local issue groups.
    • No systematic integration of these groups into the economy (subsistence production continues).
explanation for absence of civil society
Explanation for absence of civil society?
  • Predatory state in post-colonial era has pushed people out of a broader society.
  • Tribalism, ethnicity, kinship enhanced.
  • These structures are so discrete that they cannot produce a broad base of support for anything => no chance for democracy.
  • Modern tribalism the dominant organizational form in Africa today.
    • Ethiopia, Sudan, Uganda, Chad, Burundi
    • Chronic violence based in tribalism, ethnicity, kinship
requirements of democracy barriers in africa
Accountability via communication.

Education, citizen identification of public versus private.

Pro-modernization values.

Africans dispersed in rural communities.

Absence of education, no systematic national identification.

Anti-modernization values (subsistence).

Requirements of Democracy – Barriers in Africa

Religion provides social/economic foundation of traditional societies. Differences of faith are not reconcilable. This supercedes government action and reinforces ethnic/regional cleavages. Extreme poverty keeps other citizens from participation in the political system.

economic re adjustment
Economic re-adjustment?
  • IMF programs have forced structural adjustment in many African nations.
  • In many cases programs have enjoyed some success but still citizens remain poor, and large numbers of citizens are poorer than before.
    • Ex: Tanzania 50% of population at $1/day.
    • Conclusion: economic development before democratization?
    • Sources of Africa’s problems? Itself, international community, international trade system (complexity).
africa and the world
Africa and the World
  • Increasingly marginalized in global economy.
  • Debt increases with few options for reduction.
  • International community pushing democracy but not promoting rational economic development, i.e, 50% of a national population cannot stay in poverty if democracy is to stabilize and expand.
    • Equality of opportunity non-existent.
    • Personal rule emerged post-independence, lacks institutional foundation.
nigeria
Nigeria
  • Population 149 million
  • Independence 1960
  • Democratic transition: 1979, 1989, 1995, 1999
  • President: Umaru Yar'Adua (2007)
    • Acting: Goodluck Jonathan
  • Religion: 50% Muslim, 40% Christian, 10% indigenous beliefs
  • Primary export: oil
political culture geography and ethnicity
Political Culture: Geography and Ethnicity
  • 250 ethnic groups
    • Size varies
  • Historically complex groups of peoples who interacted in trade, cultural diffusion, war for centuries
  • Current groups are geographically concentrated
    • Hausa-Fulani (north)
    • Igbo (southeast)
    • Yoruba (southwest)
political culture history
Political Culture: History
  • 1800s dominated by various foreign groups
    • Goal of occupying groups: resource extraction and cheap labor (slave trade)
    • 1807-1850 slave trade eliminated; Trade in goods continued
  • 1914-1960 British colony
    • Colonial government inappropriate to Nigerian political situation, i.e., tribal divisions.
    • More authoritarian approach on the part of British authorities
      • One set of rules for the British; Second set for the Nigerians
      • Consequence is conflicting message about democracy
        • Democratic institutions
        • Authoritarian political culture
religion
Religion
  • Religion reflects Muslim/Christian split from north to south
  • Challenges: traditional/modern?; 100s of traditions!
    • Hausa-Fulani
      • Islam
      • Militaristic
      • Northern region politically dominant
    • Yoruba
      • Christian (some Muslims or indigenous belief systems)
      • Southwest region, part of the commercially dominant south
    • Igbo
      • Southeast region, part of the commercially dominant south
      • Christian
nigerian nationalism
Nigerian Nationalism
  • Return of freed slaves
  • World war II veterans
  • Educated returnees
  • Civil violence experiences
    • Coups prior to Biafran War
    • Biafran War coalition
    • Continued national recruitment by military
  • Domination of officer corps by elites
effects of fragmentation
Effects of Fragmentation
  • Nigerians oriented toward political involvement are identified by
    • Exposure to formal education
    • Involvement in modern economy (participant versus subject or parochial orientations)
  • Pattern of involvement - clientelism
  • Limited legitimacy of opposition
  • High efficacy but low trust
  • Political corruption problematic
  • Two dominant democratic orientations:
    • Freedom and political accountability
political socialization
Political Socialization
  • Agents of socialization
    • Family, nuclear or extended (polygamous in the north)
    • Schools, valued as necessary to advancement (community builders)
    • Language, linguistic pluralism
    • Newspapers, primary source of political information but limited by illiteracy
    • Mass media and propaganda – radio critical source
    • The state – launches propaganda
    • Urbanization
    • Religion
political recruitment
Political Recruitment
  • Politicization of the military
    • Recruitment of officers from university graduates
    • Recruitment according to ethnic group
  • Transfer of officer corps after Biafran war
    • 1966 independence movement of oil rich eastern region
  • Leadership of military and professed belief in civilian rule
  • Backing by administrative class
  • Exclusion of strangers
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