JOHN ADAMS • The biggest issue Adams will deal with during his term will be foreign relations • These are continuing issues from Washington’s presidency • Problems with Britain were obvious, but they also began to drift towards war with France
The election of 1796 • In 1796 American experiences their first contested presidential election • In line with custom, neither candidate campaigned in person • Alexander Hamilton lobbies Federalists to support Thomas Pinckney because he knew he could not manipulate the morally upright John Adams • Adams wins the election and Jefferson is his VP
XYZ AFFAIR • France regarded Jay’s Treaty as an American-British Alliance • The officials were soon met by secret agents sent by the French foreign minister, not allowed to see the Directory • They were identified only by Agents X, Y, and Z • They demanded a bribe of $250,000 and a $10 million loan to the French before being allowed to meet the foreign minister • Became known as the XYZ Affair
War with France – kind of • President Adams asked Congress to prepare for war, French responded by seizing more American ships • In April 1798, an undeclared naval war began between France and the United States in the Caribbean that lasted for a year
XYZ CLIP • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uw0KcA59_8s
ALIEN AND SEDITION ACTS • The XZY affair created a surge of anti-French hostility in America • The federalist dominated Congress used the war and Adams popularity to pass several “wartime” measures • They were passed without Adams consent • Alien and Sedition Acts (1789) • Series of 4 laws - First 3 directed at immigrants • Fourth Act – the Sedition Act gained the most opposition • It set jail terms and fines for persons who advocate disobedience to federal law or who printed/spoke false statements about the government with intent to defame • Included: increase size of army, higher taxes to support army and navy • Used to silence Republican opposition
VIRGINIA AND KENTUCKY RESOLUTIONS • Republicans charged that the Acts violated the first amendment appealed to states for help • But the Constitution did not outline who had the authority to judge whether acts of Congress violated the Constitution • Madison and Jefferson believed the states should make that judgment • Jefferson and James Madison proposed the Virginia and Kentucky resolves • Reminded Congress of 10th Amendment which gives powers not mentioned in Constitution to the States • Constitution was a “compact” between sovereign states and states could nullify federal laws they deemed unconstitutional • The resolves actually had little effect and neither state acted upon the resolutions
Looming election tensions • The election of 1800 would be unique • It would be a rematch from four years earlier • John Adams vs Thomas Jefferson • President vs Vice President • It was also another contest between Federalist who supported a strong central government and Republicans who supported state authority
adams loses support • Adams reached his height of popularity with the XYZ Affair • However, he knew he could not keep going with the naval war with France • In seeking a peaceful resolution he angered many Federalists, including Alexander Hamilton • Many Federalists wanted a formal declaration of war • Adams sends a 2nd diplomatic mission in 1799 which helps end the conflict • This loses him support from more aggressive Federalists within his own party (Hamilton) • The alien and Sedition Acts became even more unpopular now that the threat of war was gone
The Jefferson campaign • Democratic Republicans and Thomas Jefferson approached the election of 1800 more organized and determined than in 1796 • Republican Campaign: • Actions of federalists were expensive, unwise, unconstitutional • When the electoral votes were counted, Jefferson and his running mate and ally, Aaron Burr had tied with 73 electoral votes • Under Article II of the Constitution, there is a procedure if two candidates are tied or do not have enough electoral votes • Federalists Congress would have to decide the election between two Republicans • With support from Alexander Hamilton, The House chooses Jefferson as President after a close vote
Presidents of the united states • George Washington • John Adams • Thomas Jefferson • So Far………
John adams in review • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xqAt8A0W204&feature=related
Jefferson’s agenda • Thomas Jefferson entered office with a straight forward agenda: • Reduce the influence, size, and expense of the National Government • To do this he reversed much of what Federalists had done • This began with his personal style • He did not want to destroy federal government or undo everything federalists had done, he just wanted to limit the national government’s presence in people’s lives
Reducing government • Government: • Cut taxes & reduced federal bureaucracy • Made the most substantial cuts in the military • Repealed the parts of Alien and Sedition Acts that had not expired • During his administration the national debt fell from $80 million to $57 million
The midnight judges • The most controversial part of Jefferson’s first term was his relationship with the Supreme Court • The Constitution did not fully explain the role of the Supreme Court • Judiciary Acts (1789) help fill in the gaps • Judiciary Act of 1801 was aimed to limit Jefferson’s ability to appoint judges • It decreased number of Supreme Court justices and increased number of federal judges • President John Adams quickly filled these positions before he left office • These last minute appointments were known as the midnight judges
John Marshall • One of the last minute judicial appointments was John Marshall • He was sworn in as Chief Justice on Feb. 4th, 1801 • Served that post for 34 years until death in 1835 • Helped build the authority of the Supreme Court • Committed to federalists idea of national power
Marbury v. Madison (1803) • Case arose when Jefferson tried to deny the appointments of Federal judges appointed by Adams • Adams had appointed William Marbury as justice of the peace in D.C. • Under orders from Jefferson, Secretary of State James Madison never delivered the official papers assigning Marbury to duty • Marbury sued Madison, demanding that the Supreme Court let him take office
MARBURY VS MADISON • Although the Supreme Court, which had a Federalist majority, denied Marbury, also a Federalist, his commission (appointment to become a judge), the Court established a far more important principle. • THE SUPREME COURT INTERPRETS WHAT THE CONSTITUTION MEANS AND CAN DECLARE A LAW UNCONSTITUTIONAL WHICH IS CALLED JUDICIAL REVIEW. • THE CONSTITUTION IS THE SUPREME LAW OF THE LAND AND THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT IS OVER THE STATES.
Judicial review • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LwVzEl0Rqas
Jefferson’s program in the west • As a strict constructionist, Jefferson opposed strong central government • However, the westward expansion of America would cause Jefferson to use federal powers
Spanish Land 1800 • Great Britain after the Revolution. • United States after War • Spanish land after Revolution New Orleans
French Land in 1801 • Great Britain after the Revolution. • United States after War • Spanish land New Orleans
Louisiana purchase (1803) • New Orleans was needed so the west could have access to world markets • French ruler Napoleon had gained Spanish territory in the U.S. • Jefferson sent James Monroe to Paris to purchase New Orleans for $10 million • Napoleon and Monroe discussed a plan to sell the whole Louisiana Territory for $15 million • Jefferson faced a constitutional dilemma
LOUISIANA PURCHASE • EFFECTS • Doubled the size of the US • Eliminate foreign threat on American western border • Ensure American access to interior rivers • Give American farmers enough land to support the republic • Jefferson’s greatest accomplishment • Why? Didn’t fight a war, no blood shed.
The election of 1804 • His policies made Jefferson an extremely popular president in his first term • Lowered taxes • Acquired new territory • Eliminated France from America • Began to wipe out a national debt • Allowed Alien and Sedition Acts to expire • Jefferson easily wins re-election in 1804
HAMILTON VS BURR • Alexander Hamilton saw Burr as unprincipled and was determined to see Burr fail • Hamilton was successful as Burr lost the election • Burr believed Hamilton had gone to far and wrote him a letter in 1804 challenging him to a dual • On July 11, 1804 Burr mortally wounded Hamilton in a dual • Hamilton’s death in 1804 deprived the Federalists of their last great leader and earned Burr the enmity of many
BURR COMMITS TREASON • In 1806, Burr planned to take Mexico from Spain and possibly unite it with Louisiana under his rule • Jefferson learned of the conspiracy and ordered Burr’s arrest and trial for treason • A jury acquitted Burr, basing its decision on Marshall’s narrow definition of treason and the lack of witnesses to any “overt act” by Burr
Code Duello • In 1777, a committee of Irishmen drew up the dueling code that would come to be used widely throughout Europe and America. • The 1777 Irish code was called the Code Duello, and you can read the complete set of rules at www.pbs.org. This code was so popular that people worldwide came to see it as the "official" rules of dueling. • In fact, the U.S. Navy included the text of the Code Duello in the midshipman's handbook up until dueling by naval officers was finally banned in 1862 (Holland, pg. 142). • Highlights of the rules include the steps of an apology, might call off the duel; proper dueling etiquette in terms of dignified behavior; the role of seconds; and what constitutes the end of a duel.
Foreign relations • In spring 1803 Napoleon declares war on Britain • This 11 year war dominated American politics • American neutrality would again be tested • American attempted to trade with both countries at the beginning of the war and is successful • In 1805 under the Essex Decision Britain decided it could seize American ships engaged in trade with France • In response in 1806 Congress passes the Non-Importation Act • Forbids importation of British goods into U.S.
The chesapeake • Britain continued its policy of impressment • Hundreds of American ships were searched • Britain was certain many Navy deserters were hiding in America • An estimated 6,000 Americans were impressed into the British Navy between 1803 - 1812 • Jefferson and U.S. citizens became outraged by these acts • In June 1807, Britain attacked the USS Chesapeake • This set off huge anti-British movement • Jefferson responded by barring British ships from American ports
EMBARGO ACT • Jefferson’s response to the Chesapeake Affair was the Embargo Act of 1807…. • Short of war, Jefferson attempted to defend our neutrality by stopping all American exports to the world. • It last 15 months and is repealed in March 1809
Embargo act effects • The embargo ruined Jefferson’s second term and his popularity • Many Americans despised the government’s interference in the economy • Federalists gain significant ground in winning seats to Congress • Despite these issues, another Jeffersonian Republican took office in 1808 – James Madison