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The High Middle Ages. 1000-1300AD. The Age of Faith: High Middle Ages. Chartres: Cathedral of Our Lady Opens 1180AD after 40 yrs: Link to Cathedral video. Regional Center of Spirituality And Business. High middle Ages Six KEYS.

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the age of faith high middle ages
The Age of Faith: High Middle Ages
  • Chartres: Cathedral of Our Lady
  • Opens 1180AD after 40 yrs: Link to Cathedral video
  • Regional Center of Spirituality
  • And Business
high middle ages six keys
High middle AgesSix KEYS
  • New farming methods improved medieval life and spurred town growth and trade.
  • The Catholic Church improved through important reforms.
  • The church was a kingdom of its own that was nevertheless entangled with secular kingdoms.
six keys
…SIX KEYS…
  • Most kings gained more power over their vassals, but lost power to growing towns.
  • New and higher kinds of learning and architecture arose.
  • The Catholic Church used the feudal system to try to conquer the Holy Lands, but the result was damaging to its own authority.
what new farming methods improved medieval life and spurred town growth and trade
What new farming methods improved medieval life and spurred town growth and trade?
  • New Ways of Farming Increased Food
  • Population Growth
  • Towns Grew Larger and Richer
    • Burghers
    • Banking and money circulated more widely
  • Guilds Controlled Crafts and Trade
  • Town people won new Liberties.
  • Soon, universities start to expand higher learning
stadtluft macht frei
Stadtluft Macht Frei

Townspeople won new liberties

the charter of lorris france ad 1155
The Charter of Lorris (France) AD 1155

18. Any one who shall dwell a year and a day in the parish of Lorris, without any claim having pursued him there, and without having refused to lay his case before us or our provost, shall abide there freely and without molestation.

slide9

Fairs were Centers of Trade

The Covered Market of Lorris, 12th century

how did jews live in medieval europe
How did Jews live in Medieval Europe?
  • Read primary source: “The Position of Jews” taken from a decree by the Bishop of Speyer
  • Answer the Questions below.
what were the big problems of the church around 1000ad
What were the Big Problems of the Church around 1000AD??
  • Low literacy among the rank and file
  • Unlawful marriage
  • Simony
  • Popes chosen in Italy by nobles
  • Insincerity among many monks
  • Heresy
  • Lay Investiture: To invest a bishop with power by secular lord
    • Kings needed educated religious leaders they knew
    • But these Bishops sometimes cared more about their feudal powers
    • Where should these bishops’ loyalty be?
the great schism christians into two branches 1054 ad

Note this: not in Chapter 10

The Great Schism Christians Into Two Branches- 1054 AD

Catholic Church versus…

Eastern Orthodox Church

  • Marriage of clergy, and other differences…
    • Pope Leo IX excommunicates the Patriarch of Constantinople
pope gregory vii a fighter for reform

What does secular mean?

Pope Gregory VII: A Fighter for Reform
  • Reestablished Religious Authority over Secular Authority
    • College of Cardinals set up to choose pope
  • Fights against
    • marriage of priests
    • Simony
    • Lay investiture
    • heresy
round 1 pope gregory wins
Round 1: Pope Gregory Wins!

Humbles Emperor Henry IV in 1077

  • Pope Reaffirms a ban on lay investiture
  • Henry’s letter: (READ Primary Source in packet)
  • Pope Gregory’s reply
    • His vassals are free of heretic king
  • Canossa, Switzerland
round 2 concordat of worms 1122 it s a draw
Round 2: Concordat of Worms, 1122: It’s a draw…
  • For years Popes and the German kings argued
  • Then a compromise:

2 Investitures

      • Church office by Pope
      • Lands (fiefs) by king

? Will this lead to further problems? Why?

cluny france a purer monastery
Cluny, France: A Purer Monastery
  • Purified monastic life 1059AD
    • Benedictine Rule revived
  • Answered only to the __?__
    • Freed from king’s (secular) control
the inquisition and friars
The Inquisition and Friars
  • Trials run by church lawyers in church courts:
    • Courts arrest heretics under canon law
  • Two new Orders of Friars: Q: Describe differences

Dominicans – St DominicFranciscans - St. Francis

slide21
Under Gregory, the Church became a powerful kingdom of its own….With government, laws, courts, taxes, diplomats, etc
  • What is the Interdict?
  • Like feudalism: Pope like King
    • Cardinals like elite nobility
    • Archbishops like_________, bishops like ___, priests as_____.
    • Curia: Court advisors:
    • Legates:__________
    • Bishops operated local courts
      • _____law
    • Taxes: _____collected (10%)
    • Social services
      • Like: __________________________
architecture time make a list of the differences romanesque v gothic
Architecture Time:Make a List of the Differences: Romanesque v. Gothic

St. Sernin, Toulouse, France Chartres, France

slide24

Clerestory

windows

Romanesque

barrel vault

Gothic Groin vaulting

tympanum

romanesque gothic
Romanesque Gothic
  • Radiating chapels and apse:
    • Separate compartments. Unified, unbroken space.
  • Vault:
    • Mostly barrel-vaults, some groin-vaults. Groin-vaulted cathedrals.
  • Arch type:
    • Rounded arches. Pointed arches.
  • Main vault support
    • Thick walls, buttresses Thinner piers, Exterior flying buttresses.
  • Clerestory:
    • Small windows. Large stained-glass windows.
  • Elevation:
    • Horizontal, modest height. Vertical, soaring.
  • Exterior:
    • Plain, little decoration, solid. Ornate, delicate, lots of sculpture
  • Sculptural decoration:
    • Thin, elongated, abstract figures. More realistic proportions and individualized features.
  • Mood:
    • Dark, gloomy. Tall, light-filled.
  • Examples:
    • St. Sernin, Toulouse, France Chartres Cathedral, France.

Notre Dame, Paris, France

slide27

More detail from Notre Dame Cathedral,

This not a gargoyle actually but decoration:

Gargoyles were water drainage spouts!

Evolution: Abbey Cathedral in Bath, England

Late Gothic: Very beautiful Fan Vaulting

with even larger clerestory windows

six key concepts reviewed
Six Key Concepts (reviewed)
  • New farming methods improved medieval life and spurred town growth and trade.
  • The Catholic church improved through important reforms.
  • The church was a kingdom of its own that was nevertheless entangled with secular kingdoms.
  • Most kings gained more power over their vassals, but lost power to growing towns.
  • New and higher kinds of learning and architecture arose.
  • The Catholic Church used the feudal system to try to conquer the Holy Lands, but the result was damaging to its own authority.
kings gained power where would you prefer to be king 1100 ce why
Kings Gained Power: Where would you prefer to be king? (1100 CE) WHY?
  • England
    • William, Duke of Normandy
    • Henry II
  • France
    • Capetian dynasty: Hugh Capet
  • Holy Roman Empire
    • Otto the Great &
    • Frederick Barbarossa
william the conqueror taking notes and using citations
William the Conqueror: Taking notes and using citations…
  • In the following slide you will see a quotation…
    • 1. Read it for content
    • 2. THINK: How would you use this in a paper?
      • Quote it all?
      • Paraphrase it?
      • What spicy phrase would you quote?
    • 3. How would you cite the source?
slide31

Read and Answer: How did William win England?

“That September, a large Viking force attacked England near York. Harold made an astonishing four-day march, 200 miles across England, and beat the Vikings soundly at Stamford Bridge. Four days later, William landed, and Harold had to repeat the march -- all the way down to the south coast of England. He took up a strong position near Hastings and waited for William. The great clash of two technologies, separated by 300 years, was set.

William's armored horse might well have blown Harold away, but they were fighting uphill and their timing was bad. Harold's men, fighting from behind shields, savaged the horses with battle-axes. Harold won the first round and then didn't follow up.

Historian David Howarth thinks Harold was destroyed, not by end-to-end history-making marches, nor by superior armor. In his view, the papal flag, the threat of excommunication, and Harold's own exhausted confidence lost the battle. He let his men sit still in a defensive position while William lofted arrows over their shields and into their ranks. He sat dispirited in a battle he might have won. Even then, William didn't win England at Hastings. He won the war when people like Harold's sister and the Archbishop of Canterbury joined him.”

Lienhard, John H. “Engines of Our Ingenuity Series: #312, The Battle of Hastings.” (1997) www.uh.edu/engines/epi312.htm (30 Nov. 2006).

example of paraphrasing and quoting information from a source and citing it properly
Example of paraphrasing and quoting information from a source, and citing it properly.

Historian David Howarth says that William won primarily not because of his superior weaponry and armor, but because he had on his side the Pope’s threat of excommunicating Harold, the support of members of Harold’s own family, and the advantage of Harold’s “own exhausted confidence” (Lienhard).

william goes to england
William goes to England…
  • When King Edmund of England dies, William of Normandy expects the throne.

? How did he lay the basis for strong central government in England?

  • He takes all the lands gives fiefs to 200 Norman lords loyal to him; kept 1/5 for himself. He also appoints bishops from Normandy.

Battle of Hastings 1066,

defeats

Harold Godwinson

henry ii william s grandson
Henry II, William’s Grandson
  • How did Henry II strengthen the king’s power over the lords?

(Royal judges now, not local lords’ judges)

  • How did a jury trial work?

(A jury were locals who answered a royal judges questions about the case)

  • How was it different from the way it works today in the US?
how did otto the great make the king s position stronger
How did Otto the Great make the king’s position stronger?
  • Otto the Great used lay investiture
    • cemented loyalties of bishops
    • a habit his grandson Henry IV goes to Canossa for…
  • Otto invaded Italy to help Pope
    • Pope crowned emperor in 962 establishing the Holy Roman Empire – the First Reich
    • Seen as continuation of the Empire of Charlemagne
frederick i barbarossa 1152 1190 descendant of otto
Frederick I (Barbarossa) 1152-1190Descendant of Otto
  • Elected King by German princes
  • Crowned HRE by Pope
  • Conflict arises with pope
  • Fights the Lombard League in N Italy 1167
    • Battle of Legnano…
    • Next slide…

Barbarossa was the Italians’ name for him.

but in the holy roman empire german kings remained overall weaker than in other kingdoms
But in the Holy Roman Empire, German Kings Remained Overall Weaker than in other Kingdoms.

Why?

  • They often got distracted in Italian affairs because of conflicts with the Pope.
  • Most lords were not dependent on the king for their land – they were not vassals in strict sense
    • Kings personally controlled less land in Germany.
  • Kings were elected by nobles who retained local powers.
writing topic sentences that reinforce the thesis
Writing topic sentences that reinforce the thesis

On the next slide…and…

  • Tell me what you think the thesis of the paper is by reading the topic sentences.
  • Also, are the citations correct?
slide40
Pope Gregory’s reforms had wide ranging effects that resulted in the formation of universities. The Pope’s call for more educated clergy meant that schools for priests in training needed to be opened. At first Bishops formed cathedral schools as part of the Gregorian reforms, with emphasis on canon law and study of the sacraments. Important to study was sacred texts, but also church administration and logic to help priests be more effective and persuasive at battling corruption and heresy (Jones 121).

The universities also needed the resourcefulness of those outside of Europe to become exciting places of higher learning. As student demand outstripped what local cathedrals could offer, the schools moved to cities where there were more resources. Independent cities existed outside the feudal system and operated great fairs where more than merchandise was being traded; new ideas and manuscripts came along with silks and spices (“Great Fairs”). The interest in ideas fueled the growth of what would become known as universities. There were already universities of higher learning in the Byzantine Empire in Constantinople and Athens, and in the Muslim city of Toledo, Spain. These universities had preserved the ancient Greek and Roman works lost to the West during the Dark Ages. Eventually, the ideas and the texts being analyzed in the East and in Moorish Spain would “trickle into the universities” of Western Europe even as church officials worried that contact with pagan texts was dangerous (Short 36). The contacts made via growing “urban centers that sought to trade with others from afar” was important to discovering what had been saved outside of western Europe by resourceful civilizations that were not Catholic, and in the case of the Muslims, not even Christian.

chivalry and knights
Chivalry and Knights
  • Define “Chivalry”
    • From French Cheval: cavalier, cabellero -
    • In German: Ritter:
    • English: Rider
  • The Song of Roland
  • What steps were required to becoming a knight?
women in art how does art change over time pt 1
Women in art: How does art change over time? (pt 1)

Circa 9th century AD:

Church of Saint Prassede, Rome. Mary with

Saints Prassede and Prudenziana.

The square halo indicates the fourth person is still alive.

Circa: 7th century AD

Mary and Joseph with Child

the university
The University

Universitas societas magistrorum discipulorumque

“The universal society of teachers and students”

This is a fortunate classroom…how does this compare

with the description in the book?

new and higher kinds of learning and architecture arose in the 1100s
New and higher kinds of learning and architecture arose in the 1100s.
  • Prior to the 12th century, intellectual learning only took place in monasteries in Western Europe.
  • Describe the students’ experience at the first “universities”?
  • From what socio-economic class did most students come?
slide47

What was so difficult for Christian scholars when they rediscovered the Greek Aristotle’s writings?

  • Pagan writers’ words coming into Western Europe from from non-Catholics!
  • The University was incorporated like a guild with ranks.
    • Bachelors, Masters, Doctorate
  • Classes start 6am.
  • Up to 3-6 years for a Bachelors
  • 3-4 more for a Masters.
  • Subjects taught:
    • Theology, Latin, Greek, Law, Medicine, Philosophy
  • Students were given the special protection under the law that clergy had, so …stories of student mayhem and pranks abound in the period!

Thomas

Aquinas

Summa Theologiae

timeline for the history of the university
Timeline for the History of the University
  • Ancient: Athens, Alexandria, Constantinople
  • c 800: Baghdad’s House of Wisdom
  • c. 800: Aachen: Charlemagne’s encouragement of learning the Palace School
  • 1079: Pope Gregory VII insists that artes litterarum be taught in the cathedrals
  • 1100s Northern Europeans visit universities in Muslim Toledo and Byzantine Constantinople
  • 1158: School of Law at Bologna, Italy
  • 1231: University of Paris, France
  • 1231: University of Oxford, England