The High Middle Ages. 1000-1300AD. The Age of Faith: High Middle Ages. Chartres: Cathedral of Our Lady Opens 1180AD after 40 yrs: Link to Cathedral video. Regional Center of Spirituality And Business. High middle Ages Six KEYS.
Townspeople won new liberties
18. Any one who shall dwell a year and a day in the parish of Lorris, without any claim having pursued him there, and without having refused to lay his case before us or our provost, shall abide there freely and without molestation.
The Covered Market of Lorris, 12th century
Catholic Church versus…
Eastern Orthodox Church
Humbles Emperor Henry IV in 1077
? Will this lead to further problems? Why?
Dominicans – St DominicFranciscans - St. Francis
St. Sernin, Toulouse, France Chartres, France
Gothic Groin vaulting
Notre Dame, Paris, France
This not a gargoyle actually but decoration:
Gargoyles were water drainage spouts!
Evolution: Abbey Cathedral in Bath, England
Late Gothic: Very beautiful Fan Vaulting
with even larger clerestory windows
“That September, a large Viking force attacked England near York. Harold made an astonishing four-day march, 200 miles across England, and beat the Vikings soundly at Stamford Bridge. Four days later, William landed, and Harold had to repeat the march -- all the way down to the south coast of England. He took up a strong position near Hastings and waited for William. The great clash of two technologies, separated by 300 years, was set.
William's armored horse might well have blown Harold away, but they were fighting uphill and their timing was bad. Harold's men, fighting from behind shields, savaged the horses with battle-axes. Harold won the first round and then didn't follow up.
Historian David Howarth thinks Harold was destroyed, not by end-to-end history-making marches, nor by superior armor. In his view, the papal flag, the threat of excommunication, and Harold's own exhausted confidence lost the battle. He let his men sit still in a defensive position while William lofted arrows over their shields and into their ranks. He sat dispirited in a battle he might have won. Even then, William didn't win England at Hastings. He won the war when people like Harold's sister and the Archbishop of Canterbury joined him.”
Lienhard, John H. “Engines of Our Ingenuity Series: #312, The Battle of Hastings.” (1997) www.uh.edu/engines/epi312.htm (30 Nov. 2006).
Historian David Howarth says that William won primarily not because of his superior weaponry and armor, but because he had on his side the Pope’s threat of excommunicating Harold, the support of members of Harold’s own family, and the advantage of Harold’s “own exhausted confidence” (Lienhard).
? How did he lay the basis for strong central government in England?
Battle of Hastings 1066,
(Royal judges now, not local lords’ judges)
(A jury were locals who answered a royal judges questions about the case)
Barbarossa was the Italians’ name for him.
On the next slide…and…
The universities also needed the resourcefulness of those outside of Europe to become exciting places of higher learning. As student demand outstripped what local cathedrals could offer, the schools moved to cities where there were more resources. Independent cities existed outside the feudal system and operated great fairs where more than merchandise was being traded; new ideas and manuscripts came along with silks and spices (“Great Fairs”). The interest in ideas fueled the growth of what would become known as universities. There were already universities of higher learning in the Byzantine Empire in Constantinople and Athens, and in the Muslim city of Toledo, Spain. These universities had preserved the ancient Greek and Roman works lost to the West during the Dark Ages. Eventually, the ideas and the texts being analyzed in the East and in Moorish Spain would “trickle into the universities” of Western Europe even as church officials worried that contact with pagan texts was dangerous (Short 36). The contacts made via growing “urban centers that sought to trade with others from afar” was important to discovering what had been saved outside of western Europe by resourceful civilizations that were not Catholic, and in the case of the Muslims, not even Christian.
Circa 9th century AD:
Church of Saint Prassede, Rome. Mary with
Saints Prassede and Prudenziana.
The square halo indicates the fourth person is still alive.
Circa: 7th century AD
Mary and Joseph with Child
Universitas societas magistrorum discipulorumque
“The universal society of teachers and students”
This is a fortunate classroom…how does this compare
with the description in the book?
What was so difficult for Christian scholars when they rediscovered the Greek Aristotle’s writings?