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The High Middle Ages Section 1 The Crusades – Attempts to win the Holy Land Back from the Muslim Turks
Slides • Motivation – at least 3 reasons • First Crusade - • Second Crusade • Third Crusade • Later Crusades • Results of Crusades
Motivation • The pope asked for it • Win “Holy Land” back from Muslims • Spiritual glory – die and go to heaven directly (where have I heard that before?) • Temporal glory and riches – lands to conquer; fiefs to win; money to be made (from fighting, from transporting troops, feeding, clothing, weapons, etc.)
First Crusade • 1096 – 1099 • Not really prepared, equipment, clothing etc. • Initial success due in part to Turks fighting amongst themselves • Set up four small states in feudal system • Occupied for 100 years; trade expanded, eastern ways were adopted by many Europeans
Second Crusade • 1147 – 1149 • King of France and Holy Roman Emperor led it • Poor cooperation, no success
Third Crusade • 1189 – 1192 • King Richard the Lion-Hearted; King Philip II of France; Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa • No success; finally negotiated free passage into Jerusalem
Later Crusades • Fourth crusade: 1202: attacked a Christian city as rival of Venice; ended up excommunicated. • Attacked Constantinople: 1204, looted the city • Children’s Crusade – 1212 marched to Marseilles where they were sold into slavery
Results of the Crusades • Military failures, except for first • Technology improved: crossbow, siege tactics, gunpowder • Kings gained power as nobles died. • Pope’s stock went up but then declined as later crusades failed • Exchanges of ideas; and products (trade)
The Revival of Trade Section 2
Trade Routes • Who benefits?
Review Quiz • How were feudalism and manorialism challenged by the growth of towns and trade? • How did the relationship between “Church and State” change during the Middle Ages? • How were the Crusades “successful failures?” • How was the growth of trade dependent on the growth of towns and visa versa? • What “values” struggle is beginning to emerge with towns and market economies and the growth of nation-states?
Baltic – Spain – Venice – England – Flanders – France – Asia – Southwest Asia – Trade ItemsEurope Mid. East/Asia
Markets and Fairs • Started with religious festivals • Local rulers provided protection, location in return for tax
Money Terms • Domestic system – making goods at home • Banking – currency exchange; • Usury – anti-Christian to charge interest; Jews provided the service initially • Capital – wealth, earned, saved, invested in a business for profit (What had been ‘wealth’ before?) • Market economy – factors of production (land, labor, capital) are owned by individuals replaced ‘barter economy’
The Growth of Towns Section 3What can you infer from looking at these pictures of medieval towns?
How was town life different from manor? • More freedom individual and from the lords • Different occupations: merchants, manufacturers vs. farmers • Didn’t fit into feudal/manorial social structure - New middle class between? • New organization: guilds
Guilds • Merchant guild controlled trade in a town • Provided monopoly to members; supported them • Craft guild provided training steps: apprentice – paid to learn while working for room and boardjourneyman – worked for wagesmaster craftsman – approved to open own shop
Rise of the Middle Class New Class – merchants, Master workers • Favored Kings over Nobles for stability and trade – why?
Life in Medieval Towns • Exciting, busy, active • Filthy, unhealthy, dangerous
Institutions and beliefs impacted by Black Death • Feudalism – • Manors – • Church – • Economy – • Social –
Decline of Serfdom • New places to live or at least sell extra food • Fewer needed on manors • Fewer available after Black Death • Many left the manors • Demanded higher wages/more rights
Life and Culture in the Middle Ages Section 4
Vernacular Literature • Everyday language of area • Included romantic poems, epic poems, comic verses, fables, mystery and morality plays depicting scenes from the Bible • Dante’s Divine Comedy was so popular it established the written language for Italy. Placed enemies in hell and friends in Heaven • Chaucer Canterbury Tales stories about common folks, satiric and amusing; encouraged use of English
Education Note the staying power of education terms: • University – “an association of people” • Bachelor of Arts – apprenticeship • Masters – master in education guild
Scholasticism • Tried to solve the conflict between Greek thinkers (who they admired) whose writings and knowledge was based on logic with Medieval thinkers whose knowledge was based on faith. • Abelard pointed out inconsistencies in church teachings and beliefs • Thomas Acquinas combined logic with Christian faith
Science • Two topics of interest? Math and optics • Why not do investigative sciences? • Practical inventions/technology progress
Art and Architecture • Surprisingly art and architecture focused on the Church. Early cathedrals were modeled after Roman buildings and were later called Romanesque (Roman-like) • Later cathedrals were mockingly called Gothic, but have come to be seen as among the most beautiful Christian buildings ever built
Wars and the Growth of Nations Section 5
30-second Summary1300 –1500 England • England – King’s power grows while feudal nobles’ declines due to professional army and support of townspeople and free peasants • 1337 English King Edward claims French crown and invades Flanders – 100 Years’ War begins • By 1453, England had lost almost all it’s land in France; financing the war led to a stronger Parliament with right to approve taxes. • 1455 Civil War of the Roses – Henry Tudor eventually wins and establishes a strong government
France • Home court for 100 years’ war; not so much an advantage due to damage to countryside, economy • Joan of Arc rallies the French to start winning in 1429 • Captured, Joan is turned over to Church and burned as a heretic • Estates General stated but never got power to control taxes • By diplomacy, trickery, marriage, wars French kings grew dominate. Role of nobles as real sources of power declined
Spain • 1469 Ferdinand and Isabella marry joining power of two great kingdoms of Spain • 1492 defeat Moors, ending last Islamic rule in Europe • Strictly Catholic, Isabella orders all Jews and Moors to convert or leave; most leave, weakening the commercial power of the country. • 1492?
Holy Roman Empire • Habsburg family gains control of title of Holy Roman Empire, but never controls the groups in it • Strong princes and local loyalty in Germany • Papal States divide Italy • Too many groups for Patriotism to develop to a single country as in England/France/Spain
Questions • How could a long war (the Hundred Years’ War) end up strengthening the government of both countries that fought in it? • Why did the English Parliament grow in power while the French Estates General never really dominated the kings? • How in the world did a 16 y.o. girl come to lead the French army? • Why couldn’t the Holy Roman Emperor unify Germany and Italy the way the French and English kings did? • What factors combined to begin to challenge the strength of the popes by the late Middle Ages?
Answers • Central gov’t power grew over nobles; national war, national gov’t; nobles killed; Paid army better than knights now (technology) • Never got the power to control taxes or the revenue of the king. (Middle Class not as strong) • Last vestige of “Age of Faith” ? Desperate times, desperate measures? • Too many groups, languages, local loyalties; no strong base of power
Challenges to Church Power Section 6
Popes start to lose worldly influence • Innocent III 1198 - 1216 Peak of Pope’s power • Boniface VIII captured by French king Philip IV over church paying taxes • Babylonian Captivity – 1309 – 1377popes ‘invited’ to stay in Avignon France
The Great Schism • 1378 –1417 Two popes • Each excommunicated the other • Finally a 1415 Council of Constance threw both out, cardinals elect new pope
Authority of pope challenged by critics • Defender of the Peace – pope head of Church only • Wycliffe in England; criticized Church excess and immorality; translated Bible into English to allow personal interpretation; • Jan Hus in Bohemia, (Czech), follower and supporter of Wycliffe was convicted as heretic by Council of Constance and burned at the stake
Question • Why was Jan Hus killed and Wycliffe not?
Answer • Pope did not have the power in England to force his arrest and trial • Wycliffe died before pope could try him; 40 years later his bones were disinterred and burned.
Medieval/Middle Ages Manorialism Lord/vassal Manors Serfs Christendom Abbot Monasticism Canon law tithe Interdict Simony Inquisition Curia Cardinals Chapter 4 terms
Charlemagne Vikings William the Conqueror Simon de Montfort Innocent III Feudalism Primogeniture Fief Magna Carta Common law Parliament Chapter 4 Terms
Early Middle AgesBig Ideas • Concerns • Relationships • Social • Economic • Political
Section 6 Pop Quiz • What was period of time called when the Popes were in France? • What was the time called when there were two popes? • Which of these critics of the Church was burned at the stake? Wycliffe or Hus • What factors combined to begin to challenge the strength of the popes by the late Middle Ages?