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High Middle Ages Timeline Check Western Roman Empire Falls ( 476 AD ) Western Europe is unstable and shaken (no longer united) due in large part to Germanic invasions . Dark Ages – trade declined, towns emptied, learning stopped .

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timeline check
Timeline Check
  • Western Roman Empire Falls (476 AD)
  • Western Europe is unstable and shaken (no longer united) due in large part to Germanic invasions.
  • Dark Ages – trade declined, towns emptied, learning stopped.
  • Feudalism emerges – Weak Kings give control over lands to lords. Lords control their area for the king and help the king fight off invaders. (Land for loyalty)
  • Church becomes very powerful – guiding force in politics and social life.
timeline check3
Timeline Check

Agricultural Revolution - advancements (iron plows and harness which allow horses to pull plows faster), allows greater production and greater wealth.

Three field system - rotating crops to restore fertility to fields and increases food production.

Trade Increased – the use of money increased.

Commercial Revolution - The beginnings of modern business practicesof loans, partnerships

Rise of the middle class – emergence ofmerchants, traders, and artisans. Formation of Guilds, they have a lot of power.

high middle ages 1000 1300
High Middle Ages – 1000-1300
  • Medieval kings could not always count on the loyalty of their nobles and churchmen?
    • Monarchs stood at the head of the society but had limited power..
    • Both Nobles and churches had their own courts, collected their own taxes and fielded their own armies.
high middle ages 1000 13006
High Middle Ages – 1000-1300
  • Power Shift!Kings (monarchs) were gaining more power.
  • How?
    • Monarchs set up their own royal justice systems which undermined feudal and church courts.
    • Monarchs reached out to the middle class. The middle class then gave their support to the monarch.
increasing royal power in england
Increasing Royal Power in England
  • William the Conqueror invades England – becomes King of England. (1066)
  • Increased royal power by imposing control over his lands. He conducted a census (counting of all people) and used it to tax people.
king henry ii
King Henry II
  • Took the throne in 1154.
  • expanded accepted customs intocommon law.
  • sent out royal justicesto enforce laws.
  • developed an early jury system.
  • These became the foundations of English Common Law (a part of the basis for our laws today)
king john
King John
  • Took the throne after King Henry II died.
  • Battled with the churchover authority.
  • John was an oppressive ruler who angered even his ownnobles by imposing great taxes.
king john continued
King John Continued
  • In 1215 a group of rebels forced King John to sign the Magna Carta –
    • it gave nobles certain rights and made it clear that even the monarch had to obey the laws. Also,
    • it included provisions which recognized the rights of townspeople and the church.
king john continued11
King John Continued
  • Important clauses of Magna Carta
    • 1. Trial by Jury:A person cannot be sent to prison without legal judgment of his peers
    • 2. Right of Habeas Corpus: No person can be held in prison without first being charged with a crime.
increasing royal power in france
Increasing Royal Power in France
  • A series of Kings exerted power in many ways.
    • Made the throne hereditary
    • Won support of the church
    • Induced a national tax
    • Expanded courts
    • Outlawed private wars
    • Formed Estates General(A body which contained representatives from all three classes of French people, clergy, nobles and townspeople)
church power reaches its height
Church Power Reaches Its Height
  • Pope Innocent III took office in 1198.
  • He claimed supremacy over all other rulers.
  • Even after Pope Innocent’s death, popes continued to claim supremacy.
  • But, during this period, French and English monarchs gained strength which and challenged the supremacy of the papacy (pope and church)
the crusades
The Crusades
  • The Seljuk Turks (Muslims) took over the Byzantine Lands in Asia Minor.
  • These lands includedJerusalem (the spotwhere Christiansbelieved Jesus livedand preached)
  • This preventedChristians from takinga pilgrimage (trip) to the Holy Lands.
impact of the crusades
Impact of the Crusades
  • Left a bigger legacy of religious hatred.
  • Unified the Muslim lands.
  • Crusaders returning to Europe from the middle east brought back spices, fabrics, and perfumes.
  • Helped trade expand.
  • The use of money grew.
  • Therefore, the kings allowed peasants to pay in money, rather than labor or grain.
  • A wider world-view emerged. There were people other than themselves, who were actually more advanced than they were.

Hundred Years War

Black Death

Decline of the Middle Ages