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High Middle Ages - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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High Middle Ages Timeline Check Western Roman Empire Falls ( 476 AD ) Western Europe is unstable and shaken (no longer united) due in large part to Germanic invasions . Dark Ages – trade declined, towns emptied, learning stopped .

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High

Middle

Ages


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Timeline Check

  • Western Roman Empire Falls (476 AD)

  • Western Europe is unstable and shaken (no longer united) due in large part to Germanic invasions.

  • Dark Ages – trade declined, towns emptied, learning stopped.

  • Feudalism emerges – Weak Kings give control over lands to lords. Lords control their area for the king and help the king fight off invaders. (Land for loyalty)

  • Church becomes very powerful – guiding force in politics and social life.


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Timeline Check

Agricultural Revolution - advancements (iron plows and harness which allow horses to pull plows faster), allows greater production and greater wealth.

Three field system - rotating crops to restore fertility to fields and increases food production.

Trade Increased – the use of money increased.

Commercial Revolution - The beginnings of modern business practicesof loans, partnerships

Rise of the middle class – emergence ofmerchants, traders, and artisans. Formation of Guilds, they have a lot of power.


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High Middle Ages – 1000-1300

  • Medieval kings could not always count on the loyalty of their nobles and churchmen?

    • Monarchs stood at the head of the society but had limited power..

    • Both Nobles and churches had their own courts, collected their own taxes and fielded their own armies.


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High Middle Ages – 1000-1300

  • Power Shift!Kings (monarchs) were gaining more power.

  • How?

    • Monarchs set up their own royal justice systems which undermined feudal and church courts.

    • Monarchs reached out to the middle class. The middle class then gave their support to the monarch.


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Increasing Royal Power in England

  • William the Conqueror invades England – becomes King of England. (1066)

  • Increased royal power by imposing control over his lands. He conducted a census (counting of all people) and used it to tax people.


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King Henry II

  • Took the throne in 1154.

  • expanded accepted customs intocommon law.

  • sent out royal justicesto enforce laws.

  • developed an early jury system.

  • These became the foundations of English Common Law (a part of the basis for our laws today)


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King John

  • Took the throne after King Henry II died.

  • Battled with the churchover authority.

  • John was an oppressive ruler who angered even his ownnobles by imposing great taxes.


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King John Continued

  • In 1215 a group of rebels forced King John to sign the Magna Carta –

    • it gave nobles certain rights and made it clear that even the monarch had to obey the laws. Also,

    • it included provisions which recognized the rights of townspeople and the church.


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King John Continued

  • Important clauses of Magna Carta

    • 1. Trial by Jury:A person cannot be sent to prison without legal judgment of his peers

    • 2. Right of Habeas Corpus: No person can be held in prison without first being charged with a crime.


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Increasing Royal Power in France

  • A series of Kings exerted power in many ways.

    • Made the throne hereditary

    • Won support of the church

    • Induced a national tax

    • Expanded courts

    • Outlawed private wars

    • Formed Estates General(A body which contained representatives from all three classes of French people, clergy, nobles and townspeople)


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Church Power Reaches Its Height

  • Pope Innocent III took office in 1198.

  • He claimed supremacy over all other rulers.

  • Even after Pope Innocent’s death, popes continued to claim supremacy.

  • But, during this period, French and English monarchs gained strength which and challenged the supremacy of the papacy (pope and church)


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The Crusades

  • The Seljuk Turks (Muslims) took over the Byzantine Lands in Asia Minor.

  • These lands includedJerusalem (the spotwhere Christiansbelieved Jesus livedand preached)

  • This preventedChristians from takinga pilgrimage (trip) to the Holy Lands.


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Impact of the Crusades

  • Left a bigger legacy of religious hatred.

  • Unified the Muslim lands.

  • Crusaders returning to Europe from the middle east brought back spices, fabrics, and perfumes.

  • Helped trade expand.

  • The use of money grew.

  • Therefore, the kings allowed peasants to pay in money, rather than labor or grain.

  • A wider world-view emerged. There were people other than themselves, who were actually more advanced than they were.



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Hundred Years War

Black Death

Decline of the Middle Ages

End