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The High Middle Ages. Morgan Uerling. Growth of Royal Power in England. William the Conqueror took throne in 1066 Helped strengthen the monarchy William’s successors Built system of tax collecting Strengthened finances and laws

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The High Middle Ages

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    1. The High Middle Ages Morgan Uerling

    2. Growth of Royal Power in England • William the Conqueror took throne in 1066 • Helped strengthen the monarchy • William’s successors • Built system of tax collecting • Strengthened finances and laws • Other English kings developed the basis for English common law • Common law – law that is common for all people • Early jury system was developed • Jury – group of men sworn to speak the truth, determine d which cases should be brought to trial

    3. Evolving Traditions • Strengthening of the throne conflicted with nobles and the Church • Forced King John to sign Magna Carta in 1200’s

    4. The Magna Carta • Two basic ideas • Nobles had certain rights • Over time these rights were granted to all English citizens • The monarch must obey the law • Respecting legal rights of the people • Not raising new taxes without first consulting his Great Council of lords and clergys • The Great Council eventually became the Parliament

    5. The holy roman empire and the church • Arose from Germanic states after the death of Charlemagne • By the High Middle Ages, popes and monarchs were extending their authority • Conflicts • Who would control appointments to high Church offices • Some popes claimed the rights to remove kings and emperors • Refusal to obey the Church resulted in excommunication • Excommunication – could not receive the sacraments • Sacraments – sacred rituals of the Church • 1200’s – Roman Catholic Church reached its peak of power • After a French king made an election for a French pope the papacy declined

    6. Europeans look outward • 1050 • Western Europe was emerging from isolation • Middle East and Asia had been thriving political and economic powers • Muslims built an empire and created a major civilization • Reached from Spain across North Africa and the Middle East to India

    7. The crusades begin • Eastern Mediterranean, Byzantine civilization was a rival to Islam • Byzantines were Christians • Muslim Turks invaded the Byzantine empire • Muslim Turks also attacked Christian pilgrims to the Holy Land, or Palestine • Byzantine Empire asked the pope in Rome for help • Thousands of Christian knights from Europe went to the Holy Land to fight a series of crusades • Crusades – holy wars

    8. Effects of the crusades • Crusaders marched and fought for 200 years • They failed in the conquest of the Holy Land • Left a bitter legacy of religious hatred • Crusades increased European trade. Heightened papal power, increased the power of feudal monarchs • Contact with the Muslim world introduced Christians to regions they didn’t know existed

    9. Learning, literature, and the arts • The Church wanted better-educated clergy • Royal rulers needed literate officials for their growing bureaucracies • Schools started around the cathedrals • Became the first universities • Ideas and texts that originated in Greece reached the universities through Muslim scholars • New writings were produced in the vernacular • Vernacular – everyday languages of ordinary people • Spain’s great epic, Poem of the Cid, told the conflict with Islam • Famous Italian poet Dante Alighieri wrote Divine Comedy • An imaginary journey into hell and purgatory

    10. A time of crisis • Bubonic plague raged throughout the world • Disease spread by fleas on rats • Helped spread by unsanitary conditions • Called the Black Death • 1 in 3 people died, more than in any war in history • The plague caused social problems and brought the European economy to a low ebb • The Church faced opposition and reform efforts • Famine and war • It took Western Europe 100 years to recover from the effects of the Black Death

    11. Bibliography • •