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What is Twitter, a Social Network or a News Media?. Haewoon Kwak , Changhyun Lee, Hosung Park, and Sue Moon Department of Computer Science, KAIST 19 th International World Wide Web Conference ( WWW 2010 ) July 30, 2010 Presented by In Seok An. Contents. Introduction

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what is twitter a social network or a news media

What is Twitter, a Social Network or a News Media?

HaewoonKwak, Changhyun Lee, Hosung Park, and Sue Moon

Department of Computer Science, KAIST

19th International World Wide Web Conference ( WWW 2010 )

July 30, 2010

Presented by In Seok An

contents
Contents
  • Introduction
  • Twitter space crawl
  • On Twitterers’ trail
  • Ranking Twitter users
  • Trending the Trends
  • Impact of ReTweet
  • Conclusion
    • My Opinion
introduction
Introduction
  • Twitter is a microblogging service
introduction1
Introduction
  • Twitter is a microblogging service
introduction2
Introduction
  • Twitter is a microblogging service
introduction3
Introduction
  • In most Social Network

“We are friends”

introduction4
introduction
  • In Twitter
  • Following on Twitter
    • Unlike most social networks, following on Twitter is not mutual.
    • Someone who thinks you’re interesting can follow you, and you don’t have to approve, or follow back

“I follow you”

introduction5
Introduction
  • Being a follower on Twitter means that the user receives all the messages ( called tweets ) from those the user follows
introduction6
Introduction
  • Twitter as a new medium
introduction7
Introduction
  • Twitter as a new medium
introduction8
introduction
  • Why do people follow others?
    • Reflection of offline social relationship
    • Subscription to others’ messages
    • Following celebrities
introduction9
Introduction
  • Goal of this work
    • We analyze how drected relations of following set Twitter apart from existing OSNs
    • We see if Twitter has any characteristics of news media
introduction10
Introduction
  • Media [ mee-dee-uh ]
    • A pl. of medium
    • The means of communication, as radio and television, newspapers, and magazines, that reach or influence people widely
  • Definition of media ( Wikipedia )
    • tools used to store and deliver information or data
contents1
Contents
  • Introduction
  • Twitter space crawl
  • On Twitterers’ trail
  • Ranking Twitter users
  • Trending the Trends
  • Impact of ReTweet
  • Conclusion
  • My Opinion
twitter space crawl
Twitter space crawl
  • Data collection ( 2009.6.1 ~ 2009.9.24 )
    • 41.7 M user profiles
    • 1.47 following / followed relations
    • 4262 trending topics
    • 106M tweets mentioning trending topics
  • Removing spam tweets
    • Clean Tweets ( Fire fox add-on )
      • Filters tweets from users who have been on twitter for less than a day when presenting Twitter search results to FireFox
      • Removes those tweets that contain three or more trending topics
contents2
Contents
  • Introduction
  • Twitter space crawl
  • On Twitterers’ trail
  • Ranking Twitter users
  • Trending the Trends
  • Impact of ReTweet
  • Conclusion
    • My Opinion
on twitterers trail
On Twitterers’ trail
  • A few users reach large audience directly
  • CCDF ( Complementary Cumulative Density Function )
on twitterers trail3
On Twitterers’ trail
  • Are those who have many followers active?
on twitterers trail5
On Twitterers’ trail
  • More followers, more tweets
on twitterers trail6
On Twitterers’ trail
  • Many followers without activity
on twitterers trail7
On Twitterers’ trail
  • Reciprocal interaction
  • Only 22.1% of user pairs follow each other
  • Much lower than
    • 68% on Flickr
    • 84% on Yahoo! 360
    • 77% on Cyworld guestbook messages

“I follow you”

“I follow you”

on twitterers trail8
On Twitterers’ trail
  • Low reciprocity of following
    • Following is not similarly used as friend in OSNs
    • Not reflection of offline social relationships
on twitterers trail9
On Twitterers’ trail
  • Degree of separation
    • The 90th percentile distance is 4.8
    • For 70.5% of node pairs, the path length is 4 or shorter
    • For 97.6% of node pairs, the path length is 6 or shorter
on twitterers trail10
On Twitterers’ trail
  • Homophily in terms of location only in reciprocal network
    • Twitter users who have reciprocal relations of fewer than 2,000 are likely to be geographically close
on twitterers trail11
On Twitterers’ trail
  • Homophily in terms of followers only in reciprocal network
    • Twitter user who have reciprocal relations of fewer than 2,000 are likely to have similar or higher popularity with their r-friends’ follower
contents3
Contents
  • Introduction
  • Twitter space crawl
  • On Twitterers’ trail
  • Ranking Twitter users
  • Trending the Trends
  • Impact of ReTweet
  • Conclusion
    • My Opinion
ranking twitter users
Ranking Twitter users
  • Twitter user rankings by followers
ranking twitter users1
Ranking Twitter users
  • Twitter user rankings by PageRank
ranking twitter users2
Ranking Twitter users
  • Twitter user rankings by the Retweets
ranking twitter users3
Ranking Twitter users
  • Comparison among Rankings
contents4
Contents
  • Introduction
  • Twitter space crawl
  • On Twitterers’ trail
  • Ranking Twitter users
  • Trending the Trends
  • Impact of ReTweet
  • Conclusion
    • My Opinion
trending the trends
Trending the Trends
  • On average 95% of topics each day are new in Google
  • On average 72% of topics are new in Twitter
    • RT, reply and mention are prevalent in Twitter unlike Google search
trending the trends1
Trending the Trends
  • Singleton
    • Tweet that has no reply or a retweet
  • Reply
    • Tweet that reply other tweet
  • Mention
    • A tweet addressing a specific user
  • Retweet
    • Refers to a common practice in Twitter to copy someone else’s tweet as one’s own
trending the trends2
Trending the Trends
  • Topics ranked by RT proportion ( # of users > 50,000 )
trending the trends3
Trending the Trends
  • User participation in Trending Topics
    • There exist core members generating many tweets over a long time period for that particular trending topic
trending the trends4
Trending the Trends
  • Active period of trends
    • Inactive : if there is no tweet on the topic for 24 hours
    • 73% topics have a single active period
    • 15% topics have 2 active periods
    • 5% topics have 3 active periods
trending the trends5
Trending the Trends
  • Majority of topics are headline
contents5
Contents
  • Introduction
  • Twitter space crawl
  • On Twitterers’ trail
  • Ranking Twitter users
  • Trending the Trends
  • Impact of ReTweet
  • Conclusion
    • My Opinion
impact of retweet
Impact of ReTweet
  • Retweet is considered the feature that has made Twitter a new medium of information dissemination
  • What is more efficient for WOM ( Word Of Mouse )
impact of retweet2
Impact of ReTweet
  • Node 0 write a message
impact of retweet3
Impact of ReTweet
  • Its follower subscribe node 0’s message
impact of retweet4
Impact of ReTweet
  • Node 4 retweets node 0 ‘s message
impact of retweet5
Impact of ReTweet
  • Node 4’s follower subscribe retweet message
impact of retweet6
Impact of ReTweet
  • Node 0 is a writer
  • Node 4 is a retweeter
impact of retweet7
Impact of ReTweet
  • 1 hop neighbors
impact of retweet8
Impact of ReTweet
  • More goes further
impact of retweet9
Impact of ReTweet
  • A tree with writer and retweeter(s)
  • Writer will be root node
impact of retweet10
Impact of ReTweet
  • Empirical RT trees
    • There is a variety of RT trees that have different shape
impact of retweet11
Impact of ReTweet
  • The height of 1 is the most common claiming 95.8%
  • As 97.8% of node pairs have less than 6 degrees of separation, all retweet trees but for a handful have a height smaller than 6
impact of retweet12
Impact of ReTweet
  • No matter how many followers a user has, the tweet is likely to reach a certain number of audience
impact of retweet13
Impact of ReTweet
  • Additional readers
impact of retweet14
Impact of ReTweet
  • Temporal Analysis of Retweet
  • Lag between tweet and its retweet
impact of retweet15
Impact of ReTweet
  • Fast WOM by retweet
  • Twitter can deliver a message to most of the user with the very fast speed
contents6
Contents
  • Introduction
  • Twitter space crawl
  • On Twitterers’ trail
  • Ranking Twitter users
  • Trending the Trends
  • Impact of ReTweet
  • Conclusion
    • My Opinion
conclusion
Conclusion
  • We study the entire Twittersphere
  • Low reciprocity distinguishes Twitter from OSNs
  • Twitter has characteristics of news media
    • Tweets mentioning timely topics
    • Plenty of hubs reaching a large public directly
    • Fast and wide spread of Word-Of-Mouth
my opinion
My Opinion
  • Is twitter fast enough to be a news media?
  • Is twitter trustful enough to be a news media?
    • Source of information
    • Interest of folks
    • Spammer
  • Can we filter the wrong information?
  • Different propagation speed in different topic
    • Propagation speed in sports
    • Propagation speed in politics