Personality AP Psychology:
AP students in psychology should be able to do the following: • Compare and contrast the major theories and approaches to explaining personality: psychoanalytic, humanist, cognitive, trait, social learning, and behavioral. • Describe and compare research methods (e.g., case studies and surveys) that psychologists use to investigate personality. • Identify frequently used assessment strategies (e.g., the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI], the Thematic Apperception Test [TAT]), and evaluate relative test quality based on reliability and validity of the instruments. • Speculate how cultural context can facilitate or constrain personality development, especially as it relates to self-concept (e.g., collectivistic versus individualistic cultures). • Identify key contributors to personality theory (e.g., Alfred Adler, Albert Bandura, Paul Costa and Robert McCrae, Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers).
Lesson One: Objectives • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: • Identify key contributors to personality theory (e.g., Alfred Adler, Albert Bandura, Paul Costa and Robert McCrae, Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers).
Personality • Personality - A unique pattern of consistent feelings, thoughts, and behaviors that originate within the individual. • Lord of the Rings (example)
Freudian Classical Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality • Developed by Sigmund Freud in the late nineteenth century and continued until his death in 1939 • Believed sex was a primary cause of emotional problems and was a critical component of his personality theory • Remains an important influence in Western culture – pop culture
The Id: (The Devil) • Is the original personality, the only part present at birth. • Resides in the unconscious mind • Includes our biological instinctual drives: • Life instincts for survival, reproduction, and pleasure • Death instincts, destructive and aggressive drives detrimental to survival • Operates on a pleasure principle -demands immediate gratification for these drives without the concern for the consequences of this gratification
The Superego: (The Angel) • Represents one’s conscience and idealized standards of behavior in their culture • Operates on a morality principle, threatening to overwhelm us with guilt and shame • To prevent being overcome with anxiety because of trying to satisfy the id and superego demands, the ego uses what Freud called… • Defense mechanisms - processes that distort reality and protect us from anxiety
The Ego: (The Result) • Starts developing during the first year or so of life to find realistic and socially-acceptable outlets for the id’s needs • Operates on thereality principle, finding gratification for instinctual drives within the constraints of reality (the norms and laws of society)
Freud’s Psychosexual Stage Theory • Was developed chiefly from his own childhood memories and from his interactions with his patients. • An erogenous zone is the area of the body where the id’s pleasure-seeking psychic energy is focused during a particular stage of psychosexual development • Fixation occurs when a portion of the id’s pleasure-seeking energy remains in a stage because of excessive gratification or frustration of our instinctual needs.
Potty Training • Parents try to get the child to have self-control during toilet training • If the child reacts to harsh toilet training by trying to get even with the parents by withholding bowel movements, an anal-retentive personality with the traits of orderliness, neatness, stinginess, and obstinacy develops • The anal-expulsive personality develops when the child rebels against the harsh training and has bowel movements whenever and wherever he desires
Phallic Stage Conflicts • In the Oedipus conflict, the little boy becomes sexually attracted to his mother and fears the father (his rival) will find out and castrate him • In the Electra conflict, the little girl is attracted to her father because he has a penis; she wants one and feels inferior without one (penis envy)
Criticisms of Freud’s theory: (Neo-Freudian) • 1. Rejected idea that adult personality is completely formed by 5- or 6-years old. • 2. Argued that Freud’s focused too much on biological instincts (ignored social factors.) • 3. The overall negative tone of Freud’s theories was not seen as effective by later clinical psychologists.
Lesson Two: Objectives • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: • Identify key contributors to personality theory (e.g., Alfred Adler, Albert Bandura, Paul Costa and Robert McCrae, Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers).
Neo-Freudian Theories of Personality • Agree with many of Freud’s basic ideas, but differ in one or more important ways Carl Jung’s Collective Unconscious Alfred Adler’s Striving for Superiority Karen Horneyand theNeed for Security
Neo-Freudian thoughts • Many of Freud’s followers joined the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. This society, led by Freud, focused on Freud’s view of personality. • Freud disagreed strongly with anyone who challenged his views. • Several members of the group, left to form their own views of personality (schools, associations).
Carl Jung (1875-1961) • Born in Switzerland, the son of a Protestant Minister, Jung was a quiet, introspective child who kept to himself. • Pondered the nature of dreams & visions he experienced. • Jung earned his M.D. degree in 1900 & went on to study schizophrenia, consciousness, & hypnosis. • He became interested in Freud after reading The Interpretation of Dreams.
More about Jung • Jung & Freud met in 1907 & became close colleagues. • Jung formally left Freud’s group in 1913. • Jung spent the next 7 years in intense introspection—led to his theory of personality.
The Collective Unconscious • There are common themes & experiences that all people in all cultures experience. • Examples: (God(s)) 1. Christianity– God 2. Islam-Allah 3. Hindu – Multiple Gods
The collective unconscious is made up of primordial images. • These images called archetypes, are the universal symbolic images of a particular person, object, or experience. • Example: the archetype of mother is in the child’s collective unconscious.
Mythology: Common themes across cultures (ancient, recent) • If you look throughout all human history you can identify these following themes: • Hero & heroine (Luke or Leia) • Villain (Darth Vader) • Naïve youth & wise old-sage (Luke and Obi-Wan)
Shadow – Our dark side • This is the unconscious part of ourselves that is negative. • Jung argued you couldn’t have good without evil. • This concept is found throughout every culture.
Other common archetypes • Mother/Father • God/Devil • Hero/Heroine (Knight, Warrior) • Damsel (Princess) • Alchemist (Wizard, Magician, Scientist, Inventor) • (Fairy Godmother/Godfather) • Teacher (Instructor, Mentor)
Individuation: • Jung believed that the goal of personality development was to “realize the self” • Individuation – the process in which a person becomes an individual (unified whole) • Your opposing forces are in harmony
Carl Jung’s Other Terms: • Jung proposed two main personality attitudes, extraversion and introversion • Extraversion – Outgoing and excitable. • Introversion – Quiet and slower to warm up.
Lesson Three: Objectives • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: • Identify key contributors to personality theory (e.g., Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, Albert Bandura, Paul Costa and Robert McCrae, Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers).
Alfred Adler’s Striving for Superiority • An Austrian physician, Adler was one of the first to break from Freud’s group (1911). • Rejected Freud’s notion of “penis envy,” argued that women really envy men’s power & status. • Main difference: Adler emphasized importance of conscious goal-directed behavior & down played unconscious influences.
More about Adler: All humans begin life with a sense of inferiority. We are helpless as children & need adults to survive. Adler argued we struggle the rest of our lives to overcome this feeling of inferiority.
We struggle to overcome inferiority. • Adler called this natural instinct striving for superiority. • “Striving for superiority” doesn’t mean being superior over others, rather to improve ourselves. • Our primary motivation is to improve ourselves.
What happens if we fail? • If we fail to overcome feelings of vulnerability & weakness, we develop an inferiority complex. • Here, an individual believes they are inferior & feel powerless, weak, & helpless.
Birth Order shapes personality First-Born- are often pampered & showered with attention. Are likely to have problems later • Middle-Born-not pampered, must share attention with siblings. • Last-Born- pampered through out life. Are likely to have problems later Big Idea: Pampering leads to problems
Karen Horney and The Need for Security • Focused on dealing with our need for security, rather than a sense of inferiority Three neurotic personality patterns • Feelings of security with result in: • Moving toward peopleA compliant, submissive person • Feelings of helplessness and insecurity will result in: • Moving against peopleAn aggressive, domineering person • Moving away from peopleA detached, aloof person • Johnny Cash Link
Lesson Four Objectives: • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: • Identify key contributors to personality theory (e.g., Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, Albert Bandura, Paul Costa and Robert McCrae, Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Julian Rotter).
Humanistic Approach: • Humanistic theories developed in the 1960s as a part of a response to the psychoanalytic and behavioral psychological approaches that then dominated psychology and the study of personality • The humanistic approach emphasizes conscious free will in one’s actions, the uniqueness of the individual person, and personal growth
Maslow Quotes: • ”If you plan on being anything less than you are capable of being, you will probably be unhappy all the days of your life.” • “The ability to be in the present moment is a major component of mental wellness.” • “The story of the human race is the story of men and women selling themselves short.”
The Humanistic Approach to Personality • Abraham Maslow is considered the father of the humanistic movement • Maslow’s hierarchy of needsis an arrangement of the innate needs that motivate our behavior, from the strongest needs at the bottom of the pyramid to the weakest needs at the top of the pyramid • Self Actualization – To develop or achieve one’s true potential.
What do you think? - Discussion • What do you think about this whole concept of self-actualization? • Do you believe that all subsequent needs must be met before you can be self-actualized? • Do people have self-actualized moments in life? • If you achieve self-actualization, can you regress? • I have seen Maslow in almost every college class I took (even outside of psychology and sociology). Do you agree that it should be taught?
In what ways does this poem have to do with self-actualized behavior? Learning is Growing After a while you learn the subtle differences between holding a hand and chaining a soul, And you learn that love doesn’t mean leaning and company doesn’t mean security, And you begin to learn that kisses aren’t contracts and presents aren’t promises, And you begin to accept your defeats with your head up and your eyes open, with the grace of an adult, not the grief of a child, After a while you learn that even sunshine burns if you get too much. So plant your own garden and decorate your own soul, instead of waiting for someone to bring you flowers. And you learn that you really can endure…that you really are strong, And you really do have worth. Anonymous
Roger’s Self Theory • Big Idea: We want acceptance by others and ourselves • Self – Organized, consistent set of beliefs and perceptions about ourselves • 1. Develop in response to our life experiences • 2. We modify our “self” in response to the exp’s. • BIG Theory: Unconditional Positive Regard – We are born with the need to be accepted by others and ourselves – when we aren’t accepted, we disapprove of ourselves and have low self-esteem.
Rogers – Part Two • If we don’t accept who we are OR are not accepted by others, then we have develop problems. • Real Self – Who we are • Ideal Self- Who we want to be (society can influence this) • Fully Functioning – Roger’s term for self-actualization
George Kelly: The Social-Cognitive Approach to Personality: • Big Idea: We constantly are assessing who we are based on what we know and learn • George Kelly – Personal Construct Theory • We use personal constructs (labels to help us categorize our world) to understand the world around us • We assess similarities and differences and then identify with what we like/don’t like.
Bandura’s Self-System • Big Idea: We learn who we are by observational learning • Reciprocal determinism – We are who we are because of: • 1. A person’s characteristics – how we think • 2. A person’s behavior – how we act • 3. The environment – society • Self Efficacy – We want to accomplish tasks so we feel competent. • Individualism – We want to get better as individuals (American/Western European viewpoint) • Collectivism – We want to get better as a group (Japan, China, India.)
Julian Rotter’s Locus of Control • Big Idea: Our sense of control makes us who were are • Locus of control is a person’s perception of the extent to which he/she controls what happens to him/her • External locus of control refers to the perception that chance or external forces beyond your control determine your fate (learned helplessness) • Internal locus of control refers to the perception that you control your own fate (efficacy)
Lesson Five: Trait Theory • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: • Compare and contrast the major theories and approaches to explaining personality: psychoanalytic, humanist, cognitive, trait, social learning, and behavioral. • Describe and compare research methods (e.g., case studies and surveys) that psychologists use to investigate personality.
Trait Theory: Gordon Allport • Big Idea: Traits make us who we are • Trait – A relatively permanent characteristic of our personality that can be used to predict our behavior. • Central Trait – A general characteristic about us : (shy, happy, etc.) • Cardinal Trait – A defining characteristic of a person (dominates and shapes our behavior)