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Personality - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Personality. Introduction Mystery of Personality? Brief class assessment of unique personality. Nature of Personality. Consistency Across Situations - Tendency to behave in certain ways across situations Distinctiveness - Each individual has his/her own distinctive set of personality traits

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Mystery of Personality?

Brief class assessment of unique personality

nature of personality
Nature of Personality
  • Consistency Across Situations- Tendency to behave in certain ways across situations
  • Distinctiveness- Each individual has his/her own distinctive set of personality traits
  • Personality – Individuals unique collection of relatively consistent behavioral traits.
basic personality traits
Basic Personality Traits
  • Five Factor Model of Personality traits
    • McCrae and Costa belief most personality traits are derived from just five higher order traits:
    • 1.) Extraversion
    • 2.) Openness to experience
    • 3.) Conscientiousness
    • 4.) Agreeableness
    • 5.) Neuroticism

1.) Extraversion

  • How does person behave if high in extraversion?
  • How does person behave if low in extraversion (or is introverted)?
  • 2.) Openness to experience
  • What is someone like who is high in openness to experience?
  • What is someone like who is not open to experience?

3.) Conscientiousness

  • What is an individual like who is high in this trait?
  • What is a person low on this trait like?
  • 4.) Agreeableness
  • What is a person high in agreeableness like?
  • What is a person like who is low in agreeableness?

5.) Neuroticism

  • What is an individual like who is high in neuroticism?
  • What is an individual like who is low in neuroticism?
  • Class Activity:

Think of a fictional character and analyze him/her/it according to the big five

dueling personality theories
Dueling Personality Theories
  • 1.) Psychodynamic
  • 2.) Behavioral
  • 3.) Humanistic
  • 4.) Biological
1 psychodynamic
1.) Psychodynamic
  • Theory founded by Sigmund Freud
  • Psychoanalytic theory explains personality by childhood experiences, unconscious motives, and methods used to cope with sexual and aggressive urges
  • Freud outlined 3 major personality components
    • 1.) id
    • 2.)ego
    • 3.) superego
freudian personality structure conflict
Freudian personality structure conflict
  • 1.) Id – primitive, instinctive part of personality
    • Operates according to pleasure principle (“wants”)
  • 2.) Ego – decision making component
    • Operates according to reality principle
    • Delay id gratification until appropriate outlet found
  • 3) Superego- Moral component that incorporates social standards of right and wrong
  • Example of how these conflict and work together
freudian belief about anxiety
Freudian belief about anxiety
  • We all have difficulty with anxiety
  • Freud believed we resort to defense mechanisms to deal with it
  • Defense mechanism – Largely unconscious reaction that protect a person from unpleasant emotions like anxiety
  • Important Defense mechanisms:
    • Repression
    • Projection
    • Displacement
    • Reaction Formation
    • Regression
    • Rationalization
    • Identification
defense mechanisms
Defense Mechanisms
  • Repression – Bury any thoughts and feelings that cause anxiety
    • Ex
  • Displacement- Divert emotional feelings from original source to another
    • Ex
  • Reaction Formation – Behave in a way exactly opposite of one’s true feelings
    • Ex
  • Regression – Revert to immature or childish behavior
    • ex
defense mechanisms1
Defense Mechanisms
  • Rationalization – Create false but plausible excuse to justify unacceptable behavior.
    • Ex
  • Identification – Increase self-esteem by forming imaginary or real alliance with some person or group
    • ex
2 behavioral perspective
2.) Behavioral Perspective
  • Behaviorist review
  • B.F. Skinner views
    • Determinism – Personality and Behavior fully determined by environment
  • Human responses are shaped by operant conditioning (rewards and punishment determine personality)
  • How can reinforcement and punishment shape our personality?
2 behavioral perspective1
2.) Behavioral Perspective
  • Albert Bandura- Observational Learning
  • Observational Learning – Organisms responding is influenced by observation of others.
    • ex
3 humanistic perspective
3.) Humanistic Perspective
  • Humanism – Emphasize unique qualities of humans (like our potential for freedom and personal growth)
  • Carl Roger’s Person Centered Therapy
    • Views personality structure in terms of one construct:

The Self (Self-Concept)- collection of beliefs about one’s own nature, unique qualities and typical behavior.

-Anxiety is result of experiences that don’t fit with our self-concepts

-We thus ignore reality to protect self-concept


Abraham Maslow’s Theory of Self- Actualization

    • Humans have a hierarchy of needs that must be met to reach full potential
4 biological theories
4.) Biological Theories
  • Eyesenck Theory – Humans personality largely determined by genes
    • Minnesota twin study
  • Recent research in behavioral genetics providing more support that personality largely inherited
personality assessment
Personality Assessment
  • Self-Report Inventories – Personality Tests that ask individuals to answer a series of questions about their behavior
    • Ex.) MMPI
    • Strengths and Weaknesses
  • Projective Tests – Ask participants to respond to vague ambiguous stimuli in ways that may reveal subjects needs, feelings, and personality traits
    • Rorschach test