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Personality. The organized combination of attributes, motives, values, and behaviors that is unique to each individual. Based on heredity and environment. Theories of Personality Development. Biological Perspective Heritability Temperament

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  1. Personality • The organized combination of attributes, motives, values, and behaviors that is unique to each individual. • Based on heredity and environment

  2. Theories of Personality Development • Biological Perspective • Heritability • Temperament • Genetically based tendencies to respond in predictable ways to events that serve as the building blocks of personality • Three main dimensions: • Emotionality • Activity • Sociability • Behavioral inhibition

  3. Theories of Personality Development • Psychoanalytic • Three parts of personality • Id • Ego • Superego • Develop defense mechanisms to deal with anxiety

  4. Theories of Personality Development • Psychoanalytic • Develops over 5 stages from birth through adolescence • Oral Stage (Birth – 1yr) • Anal Stage (1-3) Self Control • Phallic Stage (3-6) Gender Role • Latency Stage (6-12) Life Skills • Genital Stage (Adolescence) • Can develop fixations which effect personality • Personality development is complete by age five

  5. Theories of Personality • Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development • The goal of each stage is to resolve it’s crisis more positively than negatively. • If resolved positively, will obtain a virtue. • If a stage is not resolved positively, it will increase the possibility of subsequent stages resolving negatively. • Will possibly revisit the crisis in stages other times in life and may not resolve the same way as the last time. (This may be coincidentally or by choice.)

  6. Theories of Personality • Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development • Basic Trust vs. Mistrust (birth – age 1) • Hope • Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (ages 1-3) • Will • Initiative vs. Guilt (ages 3-5) • Purpose (Caregiver responsiveness and consistency in responding to the child’s needs have great impact on development in these stages)

  7. Theories of Personality • Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development • Industry vs. Inferiority (ages 6-12) • Confidence • Identity vs. Identity / Role Confusion (ages 12-20) • Fidelity (sustained loyalty, faith and a sense of belonging)

  8. Theories of Personality • Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development • Intimacy vs. Isolation (early adulthood) • “Intimacy includes the ability to experience an open, supportive, tender relationship with another person, without fear of losing one’s own identity in the process of growing close” • Love

  9. Theories of Personality • Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development • Generativity vs. Stagnation (middle adulthood) • Caring • Integrity vs. Despair (late adulthood) • Wisdom

  10. Theories of Personality • Social Learning Theory • Set of behavioral tendencies shaped by interactions with other people in specific social situations • Reciprocal Determinism personal characteristics environment behavior - Observational Learning

  11. Components of Personality • Self-concept: • perceptions (positive or negative) of your own characteristics • Self-esteem: • evaluation (positive or negative) of self-worth • Identity: • overall sense of who I am and how I fit in

  12. Self Concept • Our perceptions, both positive and negative, of our unique attributes, traits, abilities, attitudes, and values that define who we are. • Includes our sense of self (who we are and what or who we want to be) • Three parts • Real self • Ideal self • Possible self • Not fully in place until adolescence and young adulthood

  13. Development of Self Concept • From birth to six months • Start to differentiate between self and environment • Learn that we can make things happen in our environment • By nine months • Joint Attention • Smile at self in mirror but do not seem to recognize • 18 months to 24 months • Self recognition • Categorical self (based on age, sex, physical characteristics)

  14. Development of Self Concept • Seems to be based on: • cognitive development • social experience • Social Comparison • Looking-glass self (based others)

  15. Development of Self Concept • Preschool and into Middle Childhood • Express their self concept in very concrete terms based on • Physical characteristics • Activity descriptions • Possessions • Preferences • Tend to have unrealistic positive overestimations

  16. Development of Self Concept • Age 8 • Major shift in descriptions change from physical and active selves to: • Internal characteristics • Social descriptions • Begin to see selves as part of social units • Social comparison • Real self and ideal self • More realistic self evaluations

  17. Development of Self Concept • Adolescence • Define selves less concretely and more abstractly or ideologically • More self aware and self conscious as self analysis and perception increases • More contradictions within self • Increased differences in real self and ideal selves • Begin to realize possible selves • Self integration of all parts into one

  18. Development of Self Concept • Adults • Greater self awareness • Increased awareness of possible selves • With age, concepts of ideal self are more in line with real self • Goals, standards, and perspectives change (what was more important when younger is often no longer of importance, etc.) • Life review • Social comparison continues

  19. Self Esteem • Our overall self evaluation of our value and worth as a person, high or low, that is based on our positive and negative self-perceptions.

  20. Development of Self Esteem • Major Influences • Competence (self evaluation and perception) • Social comparison • Feedback from others • Cognitive distortions can possibly take root as a result

  21. Development of Self Esteem • Preschool • According to Susan Harter, is based on • Competence • Personal and social adequacy

  22. Development of Self Esteem • Mid elementary into adolescence • Physical appearance • Social acceptance • Scholastic competence • Athletic competence • Behavioral conduct

  23. Development of Self Esteem • A 2002 study (Robins, et al.) showed that self esteem in the study participants: • decreased in adolescence (but not to unhealthy levels) • increased in the 20s • leveled off in the 30s • rose in the 50s and 60s • then dropped in the 70s and 80s.

  24. Dealing with Low Self Esteem

  25. Dealing with Low Self Esteem • Recognize the contributors! • Get rid of the trash by challenging with the Truth! • Support • Self talk • Areas of Competency

  26. Identity • Overall sense of who I am and how/where I fit into the world • Often associated with a sense of purpose

  27. Identity Development • Marcia’s 4 Identity Statuses • Based on crisis (conscious decision making) and commitment (personal commitment) • Diffusion: confusion and little progress (no crisis or commitment) • Foreclosure: status determined by parents / others, not personal exploration (commitment w/o crisis) • Moratorium: Exploring alternatives but not settled on one (crisis w/o commitment) • Achievement: Deliberately chosen identity (crisis w/ commitment)

  28. Identity Development • Influences on Adolescent Identity Development • Cognitive growth • Allows imagination and contemplation of future identities • Personality • Open to experience, neurotic level, etc. • Relationship with parents • Too close, not close, etc. • Experiences outside the home • Exposure to new and diverse ideas • The broader cultural context • Is there the cultural freedom for exploration?

  29. Identity Development • Ginzberg’s Three Stages of Vocational Choice • Fantasy Stage (up to age 10) • Wish and dream about certain kinds of work • Often based on self-concept • Tentative Stage (11-18) • Base ideas on more than wishes and dreams • Realistic Stage (18-22) • Narrow down to specific choices based on interests, values, capabilities, and knowledge of available opportunities

  30. Adult Identity Development • Super’s Career Concept Theory • Crystallization (ages 14-18) • Develop ideas about work that mesh with existing global self concept • Specification (ages 18-22) • Narrow choices and initiate behavior that enables one to enter a career • Implementation (ages 21-24) • Education is complete and enter the world of work

  31. Adult Identity Development • Super’s Career Self Concept Theory • Stabilization (ages 25-35) • Decision about a specific, appropriate career is made • Consolidation (age 35+) • Seek to advance and reach higher career positions

  32. Older Adult Identity • Selective Optimization with Compensation • Selection • Focus on limited set of goals and the skills needed to achieve them • Optimization • Practice those skills to keep them sharp • Compensation • Develop ways to get around needing other skills

  33. Older Adult Identity • Phases of adjustment to retirement • Pre-retirement phase • Gather info, talk about and plan • Honey-moon phase • Relish its newness the first few months • Disenchantment phase • Feel aimless and unhappy (13-18 months) • Re-orientation phase • Establish a realistic and satisfying lifestyle

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