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Personality. Chapter 12 George S. Robinson, Jr., Ph.D. Department of Psychology North Carolina A&T State University. Personality. Personality A relatively stable pattern of behaving, feeling, and thinking that distinguishes one person from another. Personality Tests.

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personality

Personality

Chapter 12

George S. Robinson, Jr., Ph.D.

Department of Psychology

North Carolina A&T State University

personality1
Personality
  • Personality
    • A relatively stable pattern of behaving, feeling, and thinking that distinguishes one person from another
personality tests
Personality Tests
  • Self-Report Inventories
    • tests in which individuals answer questions about themselves
    • MMPI - 2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)
      • 567 true and false questions
      • 10 clinical scales
    • CPI (California Psychological Inventory)
      • 20 scales
mmpi sample questions
MMPI Sample Questions
  • My father is a good man
  • My No one seems to understand me
  • Once in a while I think of things too bad to talk about
  • I usually feel that life is worthwhile
  • I go to church almost every week
  • Someone has it in for me
  • I have a great deal of stomach trouble
  • There is something wrong with my mind
  • I enjoy social gatherings just to be with people
  • I like to poke fun at people
  • I used to have imaginary companions
personality tests cont
Personality Tests - cont.
  • Projective tests
    • test that involves the use of unstructured or ambiguous stimuli
    • TAT (Thematic Apperception Test)
      • 20 cards of vague black and white images
    • Rorschach Inkblot Test
      • 10 symmetrical inkblot cards
  • Barnum effect
    • The tendency to accept generalized personality descriptions as accurate descriptions of oneself
trait approaches
Trait Approaches
  • Trait
    • A summary term that describes the tendency to behave, feel, and think in ways that are consistent across different situations
  • Raymond Cattell
    • 16PF (sixteen personality factors questionnaire)
      • same 16 traits can be used to describes everyone, the degree or level of these traits vary from person to person
trait approaches cont
Trait Approaches - cont.
  • Hans Eysenck
    • three basic traits
      • extraversion: orientation inward or outward
      • neuroticism: emotional instability, shyness, low self-esteem
      • psychoticism: aggressiveness, impulsivity, lack of empathy
trait approaches cont1
Trait Approaches - cont.
  • The “Big Five” Traits
    • extraversion
      • assertive, talkative, expressive
    • agreeableness
      • easily liked, fundamentally altruistic
    • conscientiousness
      • orderly, dependable, responsible
    • neuroticism
      • anxious, self-defeating, concerned with adequacy
    • openness to experience
      • preference for the new, untried
biological factors in personality
Biological Factors in Personality
  • Humors and bumps
    • Hippocrates and Gall (phrenology) based personality of bile and bumps on the head
  • Body types
    • Sheldon based personality on the shape and build of ones body
      • endomorphs (round)
      • mesomorphs (rectangular)
      • ectomorphs (thin)
  • Sensation seeking
  • Twin Studies
the psychodynamic perspective
The Psychodynamic Perspective
  • Basic Concepts
    • psychic determinism
      • all behaviors result from early childhood experiences, especially conflicts related to sexual instincts
    • instincts
      • behavior driven by instincts
        • eros = life-giving, pleasure, sex
        • thanatos = death, destruction, aggression
    • Unconscious
      • part of the personality that lies outside outside of awareness, yet is believed to be a crucial determinant of behavior
the structure of the mind
The Structure of the Mind
  • Id
    • Pleasure principle
    • Entirely unconscious
  • Ego
    • Reality principle
    • Executive of the personality
  • Superego
    • Morality principle
    • Conscience, and ego ideal
defense mechanisms
Defense Mechanisms
  • Defense mechanism

* Unconscious methods of reducing anxiety or guilt

    • Repression
    • Denial
    • Displacement
    • Projection
    • Rationalization
    • Reaction formation
    • Regression
    • Sublimation
stages of psychosexual development
Stages of Psychosexual Development
  • Fixation – failure to move from one stage to another as expected
  • Stages
    • Oral
    • Anal
    • Phallic
    • Latency
    • Genital
psychosexual stages cont
Psychosexual Stages – cont.
  • Oral state (birth – 1 year old)
    • Gratification via mouth
    • Oral receptive personality
    • Oral aggressive personality
  • Anal stage (1 – 3 years old)
    • Gratification via defecation
    • Anal retentive personality
    • Anal expulsive personality
psychosexual stages cont1
Psychosexual Stages – cont.
  • Phallic stage (3 – 6 years old)
    • Oedipus complex
      • Boy loves (sexually) mother
      • Boy is hostile toward father
      • Boy fears castration (castration anxiety)
      • Boy identifies with father
    • Electra complex
      • Girl loves (sexually) father
      • Girl is hostile toward mother
      • Girl envies father’s penis (penis envy)
      • Girl identifies with mother
psychosexual stages cont2
Psychosexual Stages – cont.
  • Latency stage (6 – 11 years old)
    • Non-sexual focus
    • School-work and other interests
  • Genital stage (11 – adulthood)
    • Appropriate sexual attraction toward the opposite sex
neo freudians
Neo-Freudians
  • Carl Jung
    • Much less emphasis on sex
    • Personal unconscious
    • Collective unconscious
      • Archetypes
  • Karen Horney
    • Rejected Freud’s emphasis on sex
    • Personality results from struggles with overcoming basic anxiety
  • Alfred Adler
    • Natural feelings of inferiority
    • Personality results from how we strive to overcome those feelings of inferiority
the social cognitive and humanistic perspectives
The Social-Cognitive and Humanistic Perspectives
  • Rotter’s Social Learning Theory
    • Expectancy – ones likelihood of success or failure
    • Locus of control
      • Internal
      • External
  • Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
    • Reciprocal determinism
    • Self-efficacy
  • Abraham Maslow
    • Basic needs; physiological, safety, love, esteem, self-actualization
  • Carl Rogers
    • Self-concept
    • Unconditional positive regard
    • Real self versus the ideal self