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Personality. Final Review. Question 1.

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  1. Personality Final Review

  2. Question 1 • A researcher shoes a picture to a volunteer; the picture features a woman in the foreground and an older man, looking over her shoulder, in the background. The volunteer is asked to “tell a story” about the picture. The researcher assumes that the volunteer will project his own unconscious feelings into the story he tells. This is an example of which of the following tests? • Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) • Rorschach Inkblot Test • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) • Standford-Binet Test

  3. Question 2 • Which of the following is LEAST likely to be used in research on personality? • Interviews • Observations • Inventories • Projective tests • Conservation tasks

  4. Question 3 • The strongest support for the hereditary basis of personality comes from research techniques that use • Comparisons of photographs of the physiques of young male siblings • Rater’s estimates of the similarity between mother and child in personality characteristics such as shyness • Measurements of behavioral similarities of identical twins reared apart • Clinical case studies of the frequency of a personality trait in a family • Correlations of test score profiles of brothers and sisters from the same family

  5. Question 4 • The five-factor theory of personality (The Big Five) does NOT include which of the following characteristics? • Intelligence • Consciousness • Extraversion • Agreeableness • Neuroticism/stability

  6. Question 5 • Which of the following did Alfred Adler suggest is the primary driving force in the development of personality? • Resolving the Electra Complex • Overcoming the inferiority complex • Extinguishing the reinforcement history • Analyzing the collective unconscious • Repressing the libido

  7. Question 6 • Most professionals from the United States rate themselves better in performance and competence than their average peer. This is an example of • Self-actualization • Objective self-awareness • Enlightened self-schemas • Self-serving bias • The fundamental attribution error

  8. Question 7 • Individuals who accept personal responsibility for their life experiences may be characterized as having • Unrealistic expectations • Delusions of grandeur • An internal locus of control • A pessimistic view of reality • An introverted personality

  9. Question 8 • The technique of assessing personality by asking a person to make up a story based on a picture presented by the researcher is an example of which of the following types of tests? • Trait/type • Projective • Forced choice • Simulation • Personality inventory

  10. Question 9 • The humanistic perspective in psychology suggests that • Most behavior can be explained by operant conditioning principles • All humans have peak experiences • All humans are by nature good • Humans are doomed in life of neurosis and suffering • Self-actualization can happen only through therapy

  11. Question 10 • Which of the following assessment tools is LEAST likely to be used by a psychoanalytically oriented psychologist? • Sentence completion • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory • Draw-A-Person Test • Thematic Apperception Test • Rorschach Test

  12. Question 11 • The defense mechanism of projection is best illustrated by which of the following examples? • When scolded by his parents, a college student reverts to childlike behavior to gain sympathy • A soccer player who does not have much athletic skill constantly criticizes other athletes’ performances • A young man who is shy becomes the center of attention at a party given by friends • After exams were graded and returned, a college student looked at his low grade and decided that the test was unfair and difficult • After a fight with her boyfriend, a woman yells at her roommate for sitting in her favorite chair

  13. Question 12 • According to Sigmund Freud, our sexual and aggressive instincts are located primarily in the • Frontal lobes • Ego • Superego • Id • Latent state

  14. Question 13 • Which type of therapy uses free association, dream interpretation, and analysis of transference? • Cognitive-behavioral • Humanistic • Behavioral • Psychodynamic • Client-centered

  15. Question 14 • Under hypnosis, Jerry is able to withstand pain without showing any outward signs of discomfort. However, when asked to signal if some part of his consciousness is aware of the pain, he raised his hand. Which of the following is a theory that best explains Jerry’s behavior? • Dissociation • State • Role • Social influence • Age regression

  16. Question 15 • A stubborn individual who accuses peer of being uncooperative is exhibiting which of the following defense mechanisms? • Identification • Denial • Projection • Reaction formation • Sublimation

  17. Question 16 • The rationale underlying the use of projective personality tests, such as the Rorschach Test and the Thematic Apperception Test, is that they • Can be efficiently administered in groups and scored by computer • Can be given by almost anyone, since they are simple to administer and score • Reveal the subjects’ personalities by eliciting responses to vague, ambiguous stimuli • Provide clues to the subjects’ personalities based on behavioral theory • Reveal patterns of the subjects’ personality traits by requiring responses to a large number of objective questions

  18. Question 17 • Individuals exhibiting a hostile type A personality pattern are at an increased risk for • Alzheimer’s disease • Cardiovascular disease • Schizophrenia • Substance abuse • Anorexia nervosa

  19. Question 18 • According to Freudian theory, the component of the personality that is “blind, impulsive, and irrational” is the • Ego • Ego-ideal • Id • Libido • Superego

  20. Question 19 • Judy believes that her fate is determined by her own actions. Judy’s belief illustrates • Self-actualization • Psychological reactance • A preoperational; schema • The basis for psychological determinism • An internal locus of control

  21. Question 20 • Which perspective views the human condition as a mixture of unconscious desires and conflicts? • Humanistic • Trait • Psychoanalytic • Behavioral • Cognitive

  22. Question 21 • Which perspective was used by Raymond Cattell as a basis for his personality measure known as the 16PF test? • Humanistic • Trait • Psychoanalytic • Behavioral • Cognitive

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