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Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning

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Classical Conditioning

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  1. Classical Conditioning Learning: Principles & Applications

  2. Classical Conditioning

  3. Classical Conditioning • Learning: A relatively permanent change in behavioral tendency that results from experience • Definition: a learning procedure in which associations are made between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus • This was discovered accidentally by PAVLOV

  4. Classical Conditioning • Neutral Stimulus: a stimulus that does not initially elicit any part of an unconditioned response (for Pavlov a bell) • Unconditioned Stimulus (US): an event that elicits a certain predictable response typically without previous training(for Pavlov the food) • A dog doesn’t need to be taught to salivate when it smells meat • Unconditioned Response (UR): an organism’s automatic (or natural) reaction to a stimulus • Think REFLEX

  5. Classical Conditioning • Conditioned Stimulus (CS): a once neutral event that elicits a given response after a period of training in which it has been paired with (occurred just before) an unconditioned stimulus • Conditioned Response (CR): reaction to the conditioned stimulus

  6. Classical Conditioning

  7. Classical Conditioning • Helps animals and adults adapt to environments • Avoiding danger • Acquisition of classical conditioning occurs gradually • The more often a CS & US are paired, the conditioned response (CR) is strengthened

  8. Generalization and Discrimination • Generalization: responding similarly to a range of stimuli • Discrimination: the ability to respond differently to a stimuli

  9. Generalization and Discrimination

  10. Extinction & Spontaneous Recovery • Extinction: the gradual disappearance of a conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus • Doesn’t mean its gone forever • With a rest period the CR (saliva) can return when the CS (bell) when not followed by a US (food) • This is called spontaneous recovery

  11. Classical Conditioning Human Behavior

  12. Human Behavior • John B. Watson • Little Albert • Now considered unethical because it taught a child to fear something he originally had no fear of

  13. Taste Aversions

  14. Taste Aversions • People usually write it off to “It must have been something I ate” even if they haven’t eaten for hours • Psychologists can predict which part of your new meal will be the conditioned stimulus • How can we apply this to help humans?

  15. Behaviorism • Classical Conditioning is an example of behaviorism • The attempt to understand behavior in terms of relationships between observable stimuli and observable responses