The Cold War. 1947-1991. Post War to Cold War. GI Bill – Congress passed this to allow soldiers returning home access to low interest loans and free education Baby Boom – the population jumped in the years following WWII (Baby Boomers are those born 1945 – 1960)
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The Cold War 1947-1991
Post War to Cold War • GI Bill – Congress passed this to allow soldiers returning home access to low interest loans and free education • Baby Boom – the population jumped in the years following WWII (Baby Boomers are those born 1945 – 1960) • Consumerism – WWII had ended the Great Depression & people had jobs and were spending money
1950’s Pop culture • Norman Rockwell – idealistic pictures of life in America • Dr. Jonas Salk – created vaccine for polio, wrote books on child rearing • Mass Media – TV could reach large #’s of people • Little Richard brings in Rock-n-Roll – then Chuck Berry & Elvis Presley • Teenagers became an all new market • Beat Movement – nonconformist of the time • Jackie Robinson – integrated MLB in 1947
Definition: • The Cold War (1947–1991) was the continuing power struggle -existing after World War II (1939–1945) between the Communist World -primarily the Soviet Union and its allies, and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States and its allies.
Causes of the Cold War • WWII – USSR lost 20 million people and were determined to gain #’s through Satellite Nations – those nations under Soviet control • Post-War differences of opinions – Yalta Conference and control of Germany and Poland • USSR’s creation of the “Iron Curtain” – symbolic of communist domination and oppression • Stalin pledged to spread communism
Events of the Cold War Under Truman • Truman Doctrine – promised assistance to countries trying to resist communist oppression • Marshall Plan – promised financial aid to rebuild post WWII Europe • Germany, including it’s capital of Berlin was divided into four occupation zones each controlled by and Allied country. • West Germany under control from the US, British, and French prospered while East Germany under Soviet control did not.
Berlin Airlift • Berlin was in East Germany and Stalin closed all transportation routes into West Berlin cutting of supplies to millions of residents. • Trying to avoid war, Truman began the Berlin Airlift – British and US planes delivered supplies by air for 15 months to West Berlin
In 1949, China fell to Communism making Americans fear the spread of communism throughout Asia. Also in 1949, the Soviets explode an atomic bomb.
The Berlin blockade increased the fear of communist aggression in Western Europe. • As a result NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) was formed as a defensive alliance. • Then, the USSR formed the Warsaw Pact- Soviet alliance. • Policy of Containment – efforts to prevent the spread of communism
Cold War and Korea • After WWII, the 38th Parallel divided North Korea (supported by the Soviets) and South Korea (supported by the US). • In 1950, Communist N. Korea attacked S. Korea and the UN sent troops in led by Gen. MacArthur. - China joined N. Korea and it led to a stalemate. - In 1953, both sides signed an armistice and Korea remained divided.
The Cold War AT Home • The fear of Communism spread in the US beginning an Anti-communist crusade that violated the civil rights of many Americans.
Fear of Communism- • EXAMPLES: 1. HUAC (House Un-American Activities Committees) – check for communist infiltration in US 2. Truman’s Loyalty Program – investigate govt. workers 3. McCarthyism (Sen. Joseph McCarthy) lead a “witch hunt” in the US for communists Spy Cases – The Rosenbergs & Alger Hiss
Cold War Under Eisenhower • The US and the USSR raced to develop the H-bomb (US won in 1952, but Soviets had one in 1953) • Policy of Brinkmanship – willingness of the US to threaten war against Soviet aggression
Eisenhower created the CIA to gather information abroad and use covert operations to weaken government against the US. • Eisenhower Doctrine – promised to defend the Middle East against communist attack. • Israel had been formed in 1948
Cold War Under Kennedy • Communist Fidel Castro takes over Cuba • Bay of Pigs (1961) – A U.S. supported invasion of Cuba- It failed terribly and embarrassed Kennedy making him look incompetent.
Cuban Missile Crisis – Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba pointed at the US. It was a test for Kennedy and he passed forcing the Soviets to back down.
Berlin Wall – The Soviets erected the wall stopping the flow between East and West Berlin and increasing tensions in the Cold War. • http://www.mauer.jp/htmls/gallery_e.html
Space Race and Kennedy’s New Frontier • The Soviets launched Sputnik, the world’s first artificial satellite (1957) • U-2 Incident – US spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union ** Showed the US that the USSR had developed long range missiles. • April 12, 1961 – Yuri Gagarin (Soviet) was the first man in Space • May 5, 1961 – Alan Shepard became the 1st American in Space. • July 20, 1969 – Neil Armstrong became the 1st man on the moon.
Johnson’s Great Society • Lyndon B. Johnson becomes President when Kennedy is assassinated in 1963 • LBJ’s program, (Great Society), declared war on poverty and promoted equal opportunities for all. Ex: 1) funded ed. 2) Medicare and Medicaid 3) opened immigration 4) triggered the environmental movement
LBJ- Lyndon Baines Johnson • http://www.uiowa.edu/~commstud/resources/nonverbal/lbj.htm
The Warren Court 1953-1959 • Under Chief Justice Earl Warren, the Supreme Court led a wave of liberal reform going along with the “Great Society”. • - Brown v. Board – ended school segregation • - cases requiring the fair districting of legislative districts • - Mapp v. Ohio – concerned illegally seized evidence • - Gideon v. Wainwright – free council must be provided • - Miranda v. Arizona – rights must be read to the accused • - Escobedo v. Illinois – accused has the right to have a lawyer present during police questioning