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Preview Starting Points Map Main Idea / Reading Focus Causes of the Revolution Quick Facts: Causes of the Revolution First Events of the Revolution Creating a New Nation. The Revolution Begins. Click the icon to play Listen to History audio.
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Preview Starting Points Map Main Idea / Reading Focus Causes of the Revolution Quick Facts: Causes of the Revolution First Events of the Revolution Creating a New Nation The Revolution Begins
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The Revolution Begins Main Idea Problems in French society led to a revolution, the formation of a new government, and the end of the monarchy. • Reading Focus • What caused the French Revolution? • What happened during the first events of the Revolution? • How did the French create a new nation?
Long-standing resentments against the monarchy Inequalities in society Existing social and political structure Called the Old Order, or ancient régime King at the top and estates under him King Louis XVI, shy and indecisive Unpopular, self-indulgent queen, Marie-Antoinette Rest of French society divided into three classes, called estates Causes of the Revolution
First Estate Second Estate Third Estate • Roman Catholic clergy • One percent of the population • Exempt from taxes • Owned 10 percent of the land • Collected rents and fees • Bishops and other clergy grew wealthy • Nobility • Less than 2 percent of the population • Paid few taxes • Controlled much wealth • Held key positions • Government • Military • Lived on country estates • Largest group—97% of the population • Bourgeoisie—city-dwelling merchants, factory owners, and professionals • Sans culottes—artisans and workers • Peasants—poor with little hope, paid rents and fees The Three Estates Varied widely in what they contributed in terms of work and taxes
A Financial Crisis Enlightenment Ideas • Severe economic problems affected much of the country • France in debt, spending lavishly, borrowing money, and facing bankruptcy • Hailstorm and drought ruined harvest; harsh winter limited flour production • People hungry and angry; clergy and nobility no help • Inspiring new ideas from Enlightenment philosophers • Great Britain’s government limiting the king’s power • American colonists rebelled successfully against British king • New ideas changed government and society in other countries Further Causes
Summarize What were the causes of the French Revolution? Answer(s): inequalities in society, Enlightenment ideas, poor leadership, financial crisis, hunger and cold
First Events of the Revolution • By 1789, no group happy • Clergy and nobility lost power to monarchy • Bourgeoisie resented regulations • Poor worse off • Estates General meets • Desire for reforms • Voting process a problem • Third Estate proclaimed themselves National Assembly • Tennis Court Oath • Storming of the Bastille • King brought in troops • People of Paris armed themselves • Searching for weapons, a mob stormed the Bastille • Great Fear spread • King to punish the Third Estate with foreign soldiers • Rumors of massacres • Peasants destroyed records and burned nobles’ houses
Identify Cause and Effect What was the connection between the fall of the Bastille and the Great Fear? Answer(s): possible answer—After the fall of the Bastille, people were terrified that the king would punish them.
Restrictions on Power Legislating New Rights • Louis tried to protect his throne • Angered the common people • Prices still high; mob broke into the palace demanding bread • Royal family seized; National Assembly took bolder steps • Passed laws against the church, clergy, and public employees • Some outraged by actions • Feudal dues eliminated • Declaration laid out “liberty, equality, fraternity” • Inspired by the English Bill of Rights, American Declaration of Independence, and the writings of Enlightenment philosophers • Men are born equal and remain equal under the law • The rights did not extend to women Creating a New Nation
Foreign Powers End of Monarchy • Austria and Prussia warned against harming monarchs • Austrian army defeats French • Financial strain of war, food shortages, and high prices • King blamed; action demanded • August 10, 1792 royal family imprisoned by mob • Radical faction took charge with National Convention • Monarchy abolished; France declared a republic Formation of a New Government In 1791, the Legislative Assembly is formed. Citizens gained broad voting rights, but rights were not universal. Constitution restricted power of king and ended distinctions of birth. King and queen feared they would be harmed. French revolutionary troops won the Battle of Valmy. New French republic held ground against Europe’s Old Order.
Sequence What steps did National and Legislative Assemblies take to create a new nation? Answer(s): National Assembly completed constitution and created Legislative Assembly; Legislative Assembly—created a new legislature, the National Convention, which abolished the monarchy and declared France a republic