Stages of a Revolution. Examples from French Revolution. Crane Brinton, The Anatomy of a Revolution. Every revolution begins with the problems of the Old Regime 1 st stage = increasing dissatisfaction with the Old regime, spontaneous acts of protest and violence, overthrow
Examples from French Revolution
Much like an illness, revolutions can also be studied in stages
into contact with the individual, infecting them, but not yet causing
any symptoms to present themselves.
What would this stage be like in a revolution?
In a revolution, this stage would involve the political, social, intellectual,
or economic causes. In some cases, these causes could fester for
many years before showing themselves in the form of actual
revolutionary action.---CONDITIONS FOR A REVOLUTION
---wealth and power are distributed unequally
---severe economic problems
---a group of intellectuals criticizes the government
---the government uses it power to maintain the status quo and repress dissents
---the classes of people are in conflict, and the most ambitious are blocked from gaining power
---different groups want different changes
---people obtain weapons in a fairly large amounts
---ideals are easy for people to believe in and become the slogan/war cry
Conditions of a Revolution: The Three Estates
Varied widely in what they contributed in terms of work and taxes
What does this contemporary political cartoon say about conditions in France under the Old Regime?
The Third Estate
The people in
The system of feudalism in
known as The
Old Regime. Citizens were
The people of the 3rd estate liked that idea.
Conditions of a Revolution: Why revolt?
The French economy was failing.
Taxes were high, profits were low and food supplies were short.
King Louis the XVI was weak and unconcerned about the plight of the third estate.
Play Vivaldi’s Four Seasons
Hall of Mirrors
The nobles forced the king to call a meeting of the Estates-General an assembly of delegates from each of the three estates.
in observable ways. Temperature may rise. A cough might present
itself. The individual might become weak and queasy.
What would this stage be like in a revolution?
In a revolution, this stage would be the first to involve direct
action resulting from the social, political, intellectual, or economic
causes of the incubation stage. This stage might involve the publication
of works calling for a change, street level riots by the common people,
or more direct attempts at changing the society.
Storming the Bastille
The storming of Bastille stared by a rumor about Louis XVI planning a massacre on the France citizens.
They had rifles but no gunpowder, they need to get prepared.
On July 14, 1789 a mob was started at a royal fortress (prison) in Paris, called Bastille, they went there to get ammunition.
They has succeeded and the governor had surrender, but the mob killed the governor any way.
The France people had the Bastille under their control.
The cry of “We want the Bastille!” went up among the crowd.
This great fall of the Bastille was a symbolic act of revolution that the power of the king could be challenged.
The people of Paris worked together in this event and won.
They spoke out true words and demonstrated that they too had a voice in the government.
That is why this event was a rise in democracy.
King Louis XVI asked an aide, “Is this a revolt?” The answer came swiftly: “No, sire. It is a revolution.”
The increased mob activity in Paris resulted in the formation of a permanent committee to keep order.
Between June and the beginning of August there were riots in the countryside. Peasants burned their nobles' chateaux, monasteries and buildings which housed public records.
Kill the no good king that doesn't even spare a piece of bread for this country!
Imagine yourself living your life in France, watching your home land becoming a wreck and scared if the kings men might terrorize you.
You sit there worried about any sudden massacre and the price of bread goes up and your children start to starve because you can’t afford it.
You are not just going to sit there your going to do something about it.
Well, this same event occur on October 1789 were infuriated women from Paris march 12 miles to Versailles were the king and queen were at.
Most of the woman were terribly angry with the kind of government and the way they treated them.
No one care. “let them eat cake” replied the queen. The French citizens blamed it all on the monarchy. The mob killed two guard at the palace and forced the king and queen out of their home, never to see it again.
This event relates to the rise in democracy because before this massacre France used to be an absolute monarchy.
Now France was out of control, the king wasn’t in charge, the people were. If they wanted this or they disagreed with that, they fought for their rights. Know the king didn’t control France, the people were in control of the state.
No more starving, off with his head!
We want bread! We want bread!
We want bread!
Go to Paris Louis and Marie!
October, 1789: A crowd of Parisian women marched to Versailles to demand King Louis XVI give out free bread during a bread shortage.
Louis XVL: “We have come to disguise the economy of France.We basically have no money, sorry.
Estates General Meeting
On May 15, 1789 the first Estates General in 175 years was called by Louis XVI of France. The enlightenment ideas, final crisis,and bad leadership by Louis XVL cause France to face bankruptcy. When France was bankrupted Louis tired to tax the aristocrats, the second estate, but instead they forced him to call the Estate Generals.
The Estates General meeting has contributed to the rise in democracy. In a democracy every one is treated equal and they can speak out for their thoughts or ideas. The Third Estate didn’t just sit around and let the other two estates control their lives. They stool up and declared their rights. Soon they change the rules of the Estate General and they could voted by order.
The Estates –General was was an assembly of representatives formed by all 3 of the social class in France. It was held at the place of king Louis the XVI, Versailles. The estates had to follow the medieval rules but these rules were unfair to the third estate because it only allowed one vote for each estate. Most of the population was in the third estate. They kept on insisting for a change. They were the people , “What is the third Estate? Everything.” Abbe Sieyes spoke out. He suggested that they should have a Nation Assembly that was made up of the delegates from the third Estates. They voted to establish the National Assembly on June 1789. France was a representative government.
In the past one vote was cast for each estate.
The Third Estate now wanted each delegate to have a vote. They broke with the others and voted to rename themselves The National Assembly.
Fourth Stage---Making Concessions: Representative Government for France
The members of the National Assembly claimed to represent all of the people. The king disagreed. The 3rd Estate delegates were locked out of their meeting.
As you know the reason I called all of you here is because France is in financial trouble.
No thanks to you and your family
Mounier warned them not to give up on writing a constitution. Mounier also proposed that the Third Estate should adopt an oath of allegiance.
The Tennis Court Oath started with the National Assembly wanting a change in the government of France’s absolute monarchy.
They were willing to meet at Versailles in the Menus Plaisirs, but the room was closed. They were determined, they broke down a door, which was an indoor tennis court.
There they pledged not to leave until they had finish constructing a new constitution. That was called the Tennis Court Oath.
The constitution they created was finished on September 1791. It limited the kings power and gave most of the power to the legislative Assembly.
This was a step into the rise in democracy because they made a constitution, that wanted to keep a true order on the monarchy. The 550 people and representatives that took the oath got an equal say. When Louis signed the constitution he still had the executive power to enforce the laws.
This agreement is like the kind of democracy in the US. The legislative, judicial, and executive branches can announce the law but the president gets to decides if it becomes a real law or not.
This is where they took the Tennis Court Oath-not to leave until a constitution was created. This started the beginning of the political French Revolution. Notice the fluttering curtains representing the winds of change.
Yes I Pledge I will stay hear until we have our way
We all should pledge to stay
Just before midnight, Louis announced his acceptance of the Proposal made on August 4 by the nobles and clergy to the National Assembly
Restrictions on Power
Legislating New Rights
Medallion commemorating the Night of August 4, the end of feudalism in France
On August 26, the Declaration was formally adopted by the National Assembly. It outlined man’s natural rights. The purpose of such a Declaration was to rally the country and to add support to the National Assembly.
Reforms: Declaration of the Rights of ManAugust 1789 This revolutionary statement guaranteed the rights such as liberty and property.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Reforms---Burning the Pope in Effigy after the Civil Constitution of the Clergy
The individual either breaks the fever after a heightened stage
of illness or the individual gets progressively worse and does not
What would this stage
be like in a revolution?
In a revolution, this stage would be the make or break part of the
struggle. It may involve conflict where sides for and against
the revolution compete. This competition could take the form of
debate or full-scale war. Successful revolutions survive this stage.
Those that do not are usually considered failed rebellions.
A Divided Nation: The Legislative Assembly replaced the National Assembly in the fall of 1791.
End of Monarchy
In 1791, the Legislative Assembly is formed. Citizens gained broad voting rights, but rights were not universal. Constitution restricted power of king and ended distinctions of birth. King and queen feared they would be harmed.
French revolutionary troops won the Battle of Valmy. New French republic held ground against Europe’s Old Order.
Arise you children of our motherland, Oh now is here our glorious day ! Over us the bloodstained banner Of tyranny holds sway ! Of tyranny holds sway ! Oh, do you hear there in our fields The roar of those fierce fighting men ? Who came right here into our midst To slaughter sons, wives and kin.
To arms, oh citizens ! Form up in serried ranks ! March on, march on ! And drench our fields With their tainted blood!
Georges-Jacques Danton: "Boldness and again boldness, and always boldness"
KILL, KILL, they can’t feel a thing. It don’t hurt.
Robespierre had gone mad! I just had an old pair of deck cards. Please don’t kill me!!
The French lawyer and political leader, who became one of the most influential figures of the French Revolution and the principal exponent of the Reign of Terror.
Louis was tried (from December 11, 1792) and convicted of high treason before the Legislative Assembly. He was sentenced to death by guillotine by 361 votes to 288, with 72 effective abstentions.
Stripped of all titles and honorifics by the egalitarian, Republican government, Citizen Louis Capet was guillotined in front of a cheering crowd on
January 21, 1793.
His execution had important consequences for France, because it brought about ideas in other countries against the French Revolution.
The Guillotine was a cruel Form of punishment of death during the French Revolution.
In spite of its efficiency, an execution by guillotine was still a sickening spectacle.
"Robespierre, with his cruel moral relativism,embodied the cardinal sin of all revolution, the heartlessness of ideas."Paul Johnson"The Spectator"
This stage involves recovering from the illness. The individual might
be weakened from the experience, but he or she will eventually
emerge healthy and with new knowledge and experience that might
prevent the illness from occurring again.
What would this stage be like in a revolution?
In a revolution, this stage would involve recovering from the extreme
disruptions of the crisis stage. In general, the political, social,
intellectual, or economic causes of the revolution must be addressed in
some way, though not necessarily to the satisfaction of all
On July 27, 1794, he was barred
from speaking in public
and was placed
by his supporters
was thwarted, and
on July 28 Robespierre
died on the guillotine with
his other supporters.
Eighty more followers of Robespierre were executed the next day.
I crown myself king!
Napoleon Bonaparte, even thought he a was short man, he was an excellent military genius. He won some great wars for France, he was a military success.
At the time France was under control of the Directory. Soon the Directory lost control of people.
When that happen Napoleon gets dictatorial power and does great thing to France, like stabilized the economy, established a tax collection system and built a national bank.
He kept some of the reforms of the revolution, he didn’t change everything.
By this point he was very popular with the people and decided to crown his self Emperor of France.
The rise of Napoleon contributes with the rise of democracy because you have a great leader, who has been very successful in the military.
Who would be a better person to lead France to a better future? The people liked him and they voted on a constitution that gave Napoleon all the power.
This wasn’t a forceful battle on “who’s going to rule France” it was about who could do the job right. This is similar to a president like in the US, the people know he could do the job, and agreed that he was the right men for the job, Napoleon was like the president of France.
Was the French Revolution a failure?