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Crusades. Modern literature has used crusade in reference to all wars of religious character Middle ages: referred to 8 military expeditions in the Holy Land 1096-1270 Resisting Muslim expansion Crux: Latin for cross Cross used like a badge on knight’s garments

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crusades
Crusades
  • Modern literature has used crusade in reference to all wars of religious character
  • Middle ages: referred to 8 military expeditions in the Holy Land
    • 1096-1270
    • Resisting Muslim expansion
  • Crux: Latin for cross
    • Cross used like a badge on knight’s garments
    • Received cross from Pope after professing vows
fall of holy land
Fall of Holy Land
  • Within 100 years of Muhammad’s death Muslim expansion included:
    • Palestine
    • Egypt
    • Asia Minor
    • North Africa
  • Charles Martel eventually stopped it in Europe
  • Western Christians concerned about Eastern Christians
    • Particularly Egypt and Byzantium
start of crusadees
Start of Crusadees
  • Pope Urban II began Crusades as a defense of Christian Europe
    • Thought Muslims would overrun the west
  • Muslim threat was most real to pilgrims
    • Often robbed, beaten, or killed
    • Hostile occupation of lands that Jesus walked
  • Crusaders had two objectives:
    • Fend of Turkish (Muslim) expansion into Byzantium
    • Free the Holy Land for safe pilgrimage and worship of sacred sites
motivation for the crusaders
Motivation for the Crusaders
  • Religion
    • Viewed as act of religious devotion
    • Reward from God for efforts
  • Indulgences
    • Remission before God of temporal punishment to sin
    • Volunteering also earned prolonged time of penance
  • Reduction of taxes
  • Dissolving debt payment
  • Protection of crusades families
preaching crusades
Preaching Crusades
  • Popes were primary preachers/recruiters
  • St. Bernard of Clairvaux
    • Traveled all over Europe inspiring men to join
    • All but a few were criminals and sinners, murders and adulterers
  • Kings also participated & lead; offered financial support
    • Richard the Lionheart
first crusades 1095 1099
First Crusades(1095-1099)
  • Took place w/o support or leadership from kings from Europe
    • Many of them at odds with papacy
  • First crusade is considered best organized
    • Armies divided into four groups meet in Constantinople
    • Successful siege of Nicaea, then Antioch (1098)
    • Jerusalem fell in 1099 retaken by Christians, led to brutal massacre of Muslims
  • Jerusalem is under constant attack until 1291
    • Biggest issue Christians don’t stay in Holy Land as settlers
additional crusades
Additional Crusades
  • Second Crusade
    • 1144 Turks recapture Edessa
    • Convinced God was punishing West for sins
  • Third Crusade (1189-1192)
    • Most famous for Robin Hood stories Richard Lionheart
  • Fourth Crusade (1201-1204)
    • Sack of Constantinople (1203) by Christians
    • Wanted emperor who would favor their positions
  • Children’s Crusade (1212)
    • Most died of starvation, disease before arriving in Holy Land
    • Those who made it often sold into slavery
results of crusades
Results of Crusades
  • Main objectives were not fully realized
    • Delivering Holy Land
    • Rescuing Christians in East
  • Military technology
    • Constructing castles
    • Siege engines
      • Battering rams, towers, catapults
  • Encouraged travel & curiosity foreign culture
    • Opened new age of exploration
knights templar
Knights Templar
  • The Poor Brothers of the Temple of Jerusalem
    • Palace of King Baldwin of JerusalemSolomon’s Temple
  • Pope approved order Council of Troyes (1128)
    • St. Bernard wrote a rule
  • Military orders seen as way of tempering knights’ bad habits
    • Tied mission of Church to crusades
  • Three rank division
    • Aristocratic soldiers, clergy, lay brothers
  • Became important banking institution
knights hospitalers
Knights Hospitalers
  • The Knights of Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem (1130)
  • Grew out of care for sick in Jerusalem
  • Served as medical corps to Crusaders
  • Retreated to island of Rhodes after fall of Palestine
  • Lost Rhodes to Turks in 1523
  • Then given island of Malta by Charles V
teutonic knights
Teutonic Knights
  • Crusaders from Germany joined w/ a German hospital in Jerusalem
    • Formed Order of the Teutonic Knights
    • Brothers of the Hospital of Saint Mary of Jerusalem
  • 1226 turned attention away
    • Invited by king of Prussia to aid in German expansion
  • Cohesive unit until 16th century
legacy of military orders
Legacy of Military Orders
  • Templars: banking
    • Fuggar & Medici
  • Teutonic Knights
    • German expansion into Eastern Europe—Urge to the East
  • Royalty began to model legions of knights after military orders
pre inquisition
Pre-Inquisition
  • Christian emperor took titles that seem ecclesiastical
    • Pontifex Maximus
    • Bishop of the Exterior
  • Leaders saw themselves as political arm of Church
  • Stability of Church protected stability of Europe
origins of inquisition
Origins of Inquisition
  • Reaction to Albigensian heresy
  • Attraction was fidelity of Gospel
  • Challenged core of Catholic faith
    • The family
    • Sacraments
  • Feared effects on Church and society
  • 1231 Pope Gregory IX established the Inquisition
  • Appointed number of Papal inquisitors
    • Dominicans & Franciscans
inquisition
Inquisition
  • With a partner, choose any four and judge in which of the following categories you should place them:
    • Just
    • Unjust
    • Common practice at the time
    • Prone to abuse
  • Example:
    • Secret witnesses: Prone to abuse
inquisitors
Inquisitors
  • Inquisitors worked w/in context of civil system, but with Papal authority
  • Judg/inquisitor had to work with Papal guidelines and bishop’s cooperation
  • Dominicans and Franciscans less likely to be swayed or influenced by worldly motives
  • Inquisitor had great pressure
    • Life/death in some cases
    • Should observe mercy if possible in sentences
inquisition in spain
Inquisition in Spain
  • Formally began after Papal inquisition
  • Coincided with Reconquista
  • 1480 civil authorities took over inquisition
  • Spanish inquisition is much more brutal
    • Often violated the dignity of the accused
process for inquisition
Process for Inquisition
  • Month long ‘term of grace’
    • Allows confession and penance
    • Lighter punishment for confession
  • If no confession—trial
    • Swear innocence on four Gospels
    • Reminded of pending punishments
    • Subject to close confinement with visits from previously tried
    • Evidence still necessary if no confession
process for inquisition1
Process for Inquisition
  • Witnesses
    • Few legal advisors
    • Secret witnesses
    • No right to know accusers
    • Submitted list of enemies
  • Boniviri (good men)
    • 30-80 or more
    • Two questions:
      • Culpability and reason
      • Punishment
    • Advisory vote only
  • Conciliumpermanens
final verdict
Final Verdict
  • Solemn ceremony
    • Minor punishments first, then more serious
    • Civil authority carried out punishments
  • Most punishments were humane
  • Harshest included prison and exclusion from community
    • Prison is opportunity