The Crusades • 11th -13th Centuries European Christians carried out a series of military expeditions to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims • Great Opportunity • Alexius I asked for help against the Seljuk Turks • Pope Urban II saw a chance to provide leadership for a great cause • Cause – free Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the unbelievers (Muslims)
The Crusades • Urban II challenged Christians to take up weapons and join the holy war • He also promised that all who died fighting would have immediate forgiveness of their sins • Why Fight? • Religious Fervor • Seeking adventure • Gain wealth • New trading opportunities
The Early Crusades • French Warriors • Three organized bands marched down the Palestinian coast and reached Jerusalem • The Holy City was taken by the French but with horrible massacres • Muslims begin to strike back • Second Crusade • Jerusalem fell back in the hands of the Muslims
The Early Crusades • Third Crusade • Led by • German Emperor Frederick • English King Richard I • French King Philip II • Frederick drowned on the way in a river • English and French arrived by sea but could not move inland • Richard negotiated a settlement that would allow Christian pilgrims free access to Jerusalem
The Later Crusades • Fourth Crusade • Crusading army began fighting over the Byzantine throne and the city of Constantinople • The Byzantine Empire eventually regained Constantinople but their army and empire was much smaller and weaker • Is all this failing and killing going to stop the crusades?????????????
The Later Crusades • Nicholas of Cologne announced that God had inspired him to lead a “children’s crusade” • Thousands marched to Italy where the pope told them to go home • 20,000 French children went to a port city where two ship owners agreed to take them to the Holy Land • Two shops went down in a storm • Five Ships sailed to North Africa where the children were sold into slavery
Crusading Impact • Economic • Crusades benefited the Italian port cities but the Italian merchants would have increased trade over time • Side Effects • First widespread attack on the Jews • Political • Broke down feudalism • Kings began having stronger central governments