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Reading Fluency: What, Why, & How. Roxanne Hudson, Ph.D. University of Washington. 2006 Massachusetts Reading First Conference . What is reading fluency?. Accurate reading at a conversational rate with appropriate prosody. (Hudson, Lane, & Pullen, 2005)

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reading fluency what why how

Reading Fluency: What, Why, & How

Roxanne Hudson, Ph.D.

University of Washington

2006

Massachusetts Reading First Conference

what is reading fluency
What is reading fluency?
  • Accurate reading at a conversational rate with appropriate prosody.

(Hudson, Lane, & Pullen, 2005)

  • Decoding and comprehending text at the same time.

(Samuels, 2006)

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

what is reading fluency3
What is reading fluency?
  • To do two things at once, one must be automatic.
  • Word reading is the process that must become automatic.

(Laberge & Samuels, 1979)

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

curriculum based measurement
Curriculum-Based Measurement

Answers two questions:

  • Is this reader reading as quickly and accurately as she should be for her grade level and educational opportunities?
  • Is this reader making sufficient progress to end the year on target?
  • An oral reading fluency score will tell you who is having problems.
  • It will not tell you why or what to do about it.

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

questions to guide diagnostic assessment
Questions to Guide Diagnostic Assessment

Is your student dysfluent because she…

  • is slow?
    • Decodes letter by letter?
    • Takes too many tries to read the words?
    • Doesn’t read words automatically?
    • Doesn’t understand what she is reading?
    • Is making a speed-accuracy trade off in favor of accuracy?

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

questions to guide diagnostic assessment8
Questions to Guide Diagnostic Assessment

Is your student dysfluent because she…

  • is inaccurate?
    • Missing phonics skills?
    • Lacks phonemic awareness?
    • Doesn’t know many high frequency sight words?
    • Doesn’t have the oral vocabulary to match her decoding attempt to?
    • Not using all sources of information in the text to determine the right pronunciation
    • Not monitoring?

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

questions to guide diagnostic assessment9
Questions to Guide Diagnostic Assessment

Is your student dysfluent because she…

  • is inaccurate?
    • Missing phonics skills?
    • Lacks phonemic awareness?
    • Doesn’t know many high frequency sight words?
    • Doesn’t have the oral vocabulary to match her decoding attempt to?
    • Not using all sources of information in the text to determine the right pronunciation
    • Not monitoring?

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

questions to guide diagnostic assessment10
Questions to Guide Diagnostic Assessment

Is your student dysfluent because she…

  • lacks prosody?
    • doesn’t notice punctuation?
    • lacks syntactic knowledge?
    • doesn’t notice phrase boundaries?
    • isn’t paying attention to the meaning?
    • can’t pay attention to meaning because of attention to decoding?

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

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Research-Based Methods to Improve Reading Fluency

Accuracy

Rate

Prosody

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

improving reading fluency
Improving Reading Fluency

Reading Accuracy, Rate, and Prosody

The Bottom Line

As with any skill that requires an individual to coordinate a series of smaller actions to create a unifiedprocess, it ispracticethat allows thelearner to develop expertise.

(Kuhn & Stahl, 2002)

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

keep in mind
Keep in Mind…
  • All three areas of reading fluency are intertwined
  • Working on one area will most likely improve the others
  • Attention to a single aspect of fluent reading such as rate does not preclude teaching attention to prosody and meaning.

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

improving accuracy
Improving Accuracy
  • Early reading instruction (phonics)
  • Important to make sure students learn phonics skills to automaticity

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

ensure fluency in subskills needed for reading
Ensure fluency in subskills needed for reading
  • It is not enough for children to be accurate in phonemic blending, letter sounds, and decoding.
  • During phonics instruction, teachers must ensure that their students are automatic so that their students can apply the phonics skills when they encounter unknown words in connected text.
  • Fluency in phonemic blending, letter sound knowledge, and larger letter patterns (phonograms) predict decoding fluency in young children (Hudson, Torgesen, Lane, & Turner, 2006).

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

improving accuracy16
Improving Accuracy
  • Early reading instruction (phonics)
  • Important to make sure students learn phonics skills to automaticity
  • Not our focus today

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

improving reading rate
Improving Reading Rate
  • Repeated readings
  • Timed readings

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

what texts should students read to develop fluency
What texts should students read to develop fluency?
  • Texts at the students’ instructional or independent reading level.
  • Relatively short passages.
  • Text from a variety of genres, such as stories, nonfiction, poetry
  • Text that is motivating to the individual student

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

reading levels
Reading Levels
  • Independent Level: 96% accuracy or better
  • Instructional Level: 90-95%
  • Frustration Level: less than 90% accuracy

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

repeated reading samuels 1997
Repeated Reading(Samuels, 1997)
  • Make sure the text used for practice is at the right reading level.
  • Can get strong benefits from just three to four readings
  • The more words overlap between texts, the larger the amount of transfer (Rashotte & Torgesen, 1986)
  • Can be integrated into many different reading programs.

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

variations of repeated reading
Variations of Repeated Reading

In order to better meet the individual needs of your students, you can…

  • Vary instructional groupings
  • Vary purposes
  • Vary materials
  • Vary modalities

From Blum & Koskinen (1991)

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

what the research says
What the research says…

A meta-analysis of repeated readings research by Theirran (2004) found that these elements are critical for success:

  • Much more powerful if students read passages to an adult (ES=1.37) rather than a peer (ES=.36)
  • Instructors should provide direct corrective feedback after every session
  • Much more powerful if students read until they reach a rate and accuracy criterion (ES=1.78) rather than a setnumber of times (ES=.38)

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

timed repeated readings
Timed Repeated Readings
  • Programs with stair-stepped levels of difficulty commercially available.
  • Connected text for timed repeated readings can come from anywhere. As long as it is interesting to the student and at the right reading level, you can use it.
  • Good ideas for many students are nonfiction passages, or articles from popular magazines for children—whatever is interesting and motivating to the student.

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

great site to get reading probes made
Great site to get reading probes made:
  • http://www.interventioncentral.org/htmdocs/tools/okapi/okapi.shtml
  • OKAPI!The Internet Application for Creating Curriculum-Based Assessment Reading Probes

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

slide25
Child version of the timing

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

slide26
Teacher version of the timing

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

to conduct timed repeated readings follow these steps
To conduct timed repeated readings, follow these steps:
  • Preview

The student reviews and/or practices the timing probe. The instructor models the correct responses (i.e., correct pronunciation of isolated sounds or of difficult words) for any unknown words before beginning the timing.

  • Review Data and Set Goal.

The student and instructor look at the graph of the previous session to review progress made to date and set a progress goal for today’s session. For example, “I am going to read 10 more words than I did the last time” or “I am going to work on making 2 less mistakes than last time.”

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

to conduct timed readings follow these steps
To conduct timed readings, follow these steps:
  • Student Reads

After instructor modeling, the student is asked to read as many sounds or words as possible in one minute from his or her copy of the reading materials. The instructor times the student for 1 minute.

  • Instructor Records

The instructor circles all errors on the instructor's copy of the page with a dry erase marker or wipe-off pen OR counts the errors. In addition, the instructor offers the correct pronunciations duringthe timed reading.

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

to conduct timed readings follow these steps29
To conduct timed readings, follow these steps:
  • Record Data

The instructor or student accurately records all data on the student's Progress Charts.

  • Review

The instructor and student review the student's performance on the task, correcting errors and practicing the correct pronunciation of sounds and words. Students should be encouraged for the progress they have made and set a goal for the next attempt.

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

to conduct timed readings follow these steps30
To conduct timed readings, follow these steps:
  • Decisions

If the student does not meet his or her rate and accuracy goals within one minute with two or fewer errors, the student will read that page again during the next instructional session and continue with that page until s/he masters it. If the student does successfully read at his goal rate in one minute with two or fewer errors, he has met his goal and reads a more difficult passage during the next instructional session.

  • Celebrate/Support

The instructor provides a reward any time students meet their goals. Students who do not are supported for their effort and new goals are set for the next time.

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

graphing fluency progress
Graphing Fluency Progress
  • Use the graphs with students to provide critical information about progress and motivation.
  • Always use a pencil!
  • Be consistent in what you chart—either the total words read/errors OR correct words read/errors. Whichever you choose, stick with it.

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

slide32
R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006
slide33
R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006
precision teaching materials available
Precision Teaching Materials Available…
  • From the State of Florida Department of Education
  • Reading and Math materials, including graphing charts
  • Go to http://www.firn.edu/doe/workforce/pdf/catalog_text.pdf to order the materials.
  • Look on page 42

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

precision teaching materials available35
Precision Teaching Materials Available…

Techniques of Precision Teaching:

  • Item # 3716 V-D:1
    • Part 1: Training Material; Cost Out-of-State $4.00
  • Item # 3717 V-D:2
    • Part 2: Math Basic Skills Curriculum; Cost Out-of-State $9.50
  • Item #3718 V-D:3
    • Part 3: Reading Basic Skills Curriculum; Cost Out-of-State $8.15

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

graphing fluency progress36
Graphing Fluency Progress
  • Use dots for what you want to accelerate (words, sounds, phonograms, etc.) and Xs for what you want to decelerate (errors).
  • Be sure to draw a line whenever something changes—new probe, long vacation, extra practice or instruction, illness, or anything else that might affect the student’s performance.
  • Never connect data points across a line. Only connect data points that are in the same passage and time frame.

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

improving prosody
Improving Prosody
  • Reading with recordings
  • Partner reading
  • Reader’s Theatre

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

reading with recordings
Reading with Recordings
  • Integrate reading with recordings into repeated readings or timed repeated readings.
  • Recordings should be free of sound effects, music, or other distractions
  • Students read along as they listen to a fluent reader on audiotape
  • Books should be at reader’s independent level

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

partner reading
Partner Reading
  • Two students or a student and a tutor are paired to read the same text aloud
  • Readers take turns reading
  • Pair a more capable with a less capable reader; the more capable reader provides a model and offers support and feedback
  • Equally capable readers reread text after hearing teacher read aloud, or after reading the passage during instruction
  • Can also be done as repeated readings

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

variations of assisted reading
Variations of Assisted Reading

Echo reading

  • I read, then you read.
  • Adult models accurate and prosodic reading (reads a line of text while pointing)
  • Student ‘echoes’ the model (reads the same text while pointing)
  • Duet reading or Choral Reading
  • We both read together (or as a group)

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

what the research says42
What the research says…

Limited direct evidence of effectiveness

  • Many anecdotal accounts of increased motivation or reading achievement (e.g., Martinez, M., Roser, N.L., & Strecker, S., 1998/1999; Worthy & Prater, 2002)
  • Quasi-experimental study with small sample (& Rinehart, 1999) that found improvement in oral reading fluency and self-reported attitudes toward reading.
  • Non-experimental pre-post studies (Corcoran & Davis, 2005; Keehn, 2003)
  • Unpublished dissertations (Carrick, 2000; Maberry, 1975)

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

what the research says43
What the research says…

So should we use Readers’ Theater to build fluency?

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

what the research says44
What the research says…

Yes.

Readers’ Theater is valuable for providing the motivation to read text multiple times; an authentic reason to reread text.

For many struggling readers, the motivating factor is a very strong and critical component of helping them develop into fluent readers.

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

benefits of readers theatre
Benefits of Readers’ Theatre
  • Provides an authentic purpose, legitimate reason, and motivation for rereading text multiple times.
  • Through repeated readings, helps students develop accuracy, rate, and prosody.
  • Helps students understand the importance of intonation and how it relates to context.
  • Improves students’ comprehension of text through repeated readings and variations in interpretation.
  • Requires teamwork among students.
  • Sanctions peer interaction and fun.

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

readers theater46
Readers’ Theater
  • Choose a pre-written script or adapt your own from a narrative, expository passage, poem, speech, or other interesting text that is rich in dialogue.
  • Make sure the script is at the right reading level for your students and adapt as needed.
  • Highlighting tape can be used to identify roles, lessening the need for writing scripts.
  • Read aloud the text on which the script is based or the script to provide modeling.
  • Discuss characters’ feelings and how they might sound as they speak.
  • Practice the script
  • Perform the play.

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

research based components of readers theater
Research-based Components of Readers’ Theater
  • LOTS of practice, which means lots of reading, not listening to others
  • Repeated readings of text with feedback—evidence suggests 3 to 4 readings
  • Focus on helping students think about how to read the text to best represent the meaning

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

ideas to ensure sufficient practice
Ideas to Ensure Sufficient Practice
  • Pair students and have them read every other line, then switch.
  • Have all students read all of the script before breaking into parts.
  • Divide class into small groups and give a script to each group to maximize the amount of reading and allow matching of script to reading level of the students.
  • Do whisper reading, where all students read along in a whisper while the student with the part reads aloud.

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

readers theater49
Readers’ Theater

“The first time I read to know what the words are. Then I read to know what the words say and later as I read I thought about how to say the words…As I got to know the character better, I put more feeling in my voice.”

(Stayter & Allington, 1991)

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

radio reading
Radio Reading
  • Similar to Readers’ Theatre, except with sound effects added to make it sound like an old-time radio show.
  • Groups of students can create recorded versions of their “radio shows” that can become listening/read-along center readings for their classmates.
  • Encourage students to generate questions to pose to listeners at the end of the recording.
  • Radio Reading reinforces the importance of prosody, because listeners will not understand without appropriate expression.

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

radio reading51
Radio Reading
  • Read-along Radio Dramas provide a structure for radio reading.
  • Available from Theatre of the Mind from NPR
  • Recording of a radio play with full cast and sound effects
  • A word-for-word read-along radio script and annotated script

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

resources and materials
Resources and Materials
  • Are found in your handout

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

to sum up
To sum up…
  • Use progress monitoring assessment to determine who needs fluency instruction.
  • Use diagnostic assessment to determine what type of instruction in what area they need.
  • Practice is key to building fluency.
  • Repeated reading with an adult to a rate criterion is the strongest intervention you can provide.
  • Motivation is critical in helping struggling readers get enough practice to improve their reading fluency.

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006

slide54
Thank you!!

rhudson@u.washington.edu

R.F. Hudson Massachusetts Reading First Conference 2006